What is a Pattern?

A pattern is a set of fundamental movements set in a logical sequence against one or more imaginary opponents. Patterns are an indication of a student’s progress – a barometer in evaluating technique.  As such they form the central core of TaekwonDo.  The execution of each movement requires the correct application of the Theory of Power.

Interpretation of a Pattern

The name, number of movements and the symbol of each pattern represents either heroic figures in Korean history or instances relating to historical events.

Why do we perform Patterns?

To improve and understand techniques, to develop sparring techniques, to improve flexibility of movement, master body shifting, develop muscles, improve balance and breathing control, develop fluid and smooth motion.

Why are there 24 Patterns?

The reason there are 24 patterns is because the Founder, General Choi, compared the life of a man with a day in the life of the earth and believed that people should strive to leave a good spiritual legacy to coming generations. Therefore, if we can leave something behind for the welfare of mankind, maybe it will be the most important thing to happen in our lives, as the founder says:

“Here I leave Tae Kwon-Do for mankind as a trace of man of the late 20th century. The twenty-four patterns represent twenty four hours, one day or all of my life.”

Why do we learn the meanings of Patterns?

We learn the meanings of patterns to draw inspiration from the people in the pattern who have dedicated or sacrificed themselves for what they believe is right. They have applied one or more of the tenants of TaekwonDo. We should try to show the same dedication in doing what we feel is right. The meanings also give us a brief description of the history of Korea.

The majority of the patterns (except Yul-Gok, Ul-Ji and Tong-Il) start with a defensive move, which emphasises TaekwonDo’s defensive nature.

The following points should be considered while performing patterns:

  • The Pattern should begin and end at exactly the same spot. This will indicate accuracy.
  • Correct posture and facing must be maintained at all times.
  • Muscles should be either tensed or relaxed at the proper critical moments.
  • The Pattern should be performed in a rhythmic movement with an absence of stiffness.
  • The Pattern should not be rushed
  • Movement should be accelerated or decelerated at the correct moment.
  • Each Pattern should be perfected before moving to the next.
  • Students should know the purpose of each movement.
  • Students should perform each movement with realism.

Try to understand each movement in the pattern – not just which move to perform next.

Coloured Belt

Movements: 19

Meaning:  Chon Ji means literally ‘Heaven and Earth’. It is in the Orient interpreted as the creation of the world and the beginning of human history. Therefore it is the initial pattern played by the beginner. This pattern has two similar parts, one to represent the Heaven, the other the Earth.

Ready Posture: Parallel Ready Stance

1. Move the left foot to B forming a left walking stance toward B while executing a low block to B with the left forearm.

(Gunnun so palmok najunde makgi)

2. Move the right foot to B forming a right walking stance toward B while executing a middle punch to B with the right fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

3. Move the right foot to A, turning clockwise to form a right walking stance toward A while executing a low block to A with the right forearm.

(Gunnun so palmok najunde makgi)

4. Move the left foot to A forming a left walking stance toward A while executing a middle punch to A with the left fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

5. Move the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a low block to D with the left forearm.

(Gunnun so palmok najunde makgi)

6. Move the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

7. Move the right foot to C turning clockwise to form a right walking stance toward C while executing a low block to C with the right forearm.

(Gunnun so palmok najunde makgi)

8. Move the left foot to C forming a left walking stance toward C while executing a middle punch to C with the left fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

9. Move the left foot to A forming a right L-stance toward A while executing a middle block to A with the left inner forearm.

(Niunja so anpalmok kaunde yop makgi)

10. Move the right foot to A forming a right walking stance toward A while executing a middle punch to A with the right fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

11. Move the right foot to B turning clockwise to form a left L-stance toward B while executing a middle block to B with the right inner forearm.

(Niunja so anpalmok kaunde yop makgi)

12. Move the left foot to B forming a left walking stance toward B while executing a middle punch to B with the left fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

13. Move the left foot to C forming a right L-stance toward C while executing a middle block to C with the left inner forearm.

(Niunja so anpalmok kaunde yop makgi)

14. Move the right foot to C forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a middle punch to C with the right fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

15. Move the right foot to D turning clockwise to form a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle block to D with the right inner forearm.

(Niunja so anpalmok kaunde yop makgi)

16. Move the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the left fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

17. Move the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

18. Move the right foot to C forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the left fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

19. Move the left foot to C forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

END: Bring the left foot back to a ready posture.

Movements: 21

Meaning: Dan Gun is named after the holy Dan Gun, the legendary founder of Korea in the year 2333 B.C.

Ready Posture: Parallel Ready Stance

1. Move the left foot to B forming a right L-stance toward B, at the same time executing a middle guarding block to B with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

2. Move the right foot to B forming a right walking stance toward B while executing a high punch to B with the right fist.

(Gunnun so nopunde jirugi)

3. Move the right foot to A turning clockwise to form a left L-stance toward A, at the same time executing a middle guarding block to A with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

4. Move the left foot to A forming a left walking stance toward A while executing a high punch to A with the left fist.

(Gunnun so nopunde jirugi)

5. Move the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a low block to D with the left forearm.

(Gunnun so palmok najunde makgi)

6. Move the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a high punch to D with the right fist.

(Gunnun so nopunde jirugi)

7. Move the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a high punch to D with the left fist.

(Gunnun so nopunde jirugi)

8. Move the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a high punch to D with the right fist.

(Gunnun so nopunde jirugi)

9. Move the left foot to E, turning counter clockwise to form a right L-stance toward E while executing a twin forearm block to E.

(Niunja so sang palmok makgi)

10. Move the right foot to E forming a right walking stance toward E while executing a high punch to E with the right fist.

(Gunnun so nopunde jirugi)

11. Move the right foot to F turning clockwise to form a left L-stance toward F while executing a twin forearm block to F.

(Niunja so sang palmok makgi)

12. Move the left foot to F forming a left walking stance toward F while executing a high punch to F with the left fist.

(Gunnun so nopunde jirugi)

13. Move the left foot to C forming a left walking stance toward C while executing a low block to C with the left forearm.

(Gunnun so palmok najunde makgi)

14. Execute a rising block with the left forearm, maintaining the left walking stance toward C.

(Gunnun so palmok chookyo makgi)

Perform 13 and 14 in a continuous motion.

15. Move the right foot to C forming a right walking stance toward C, at the same time executing a rising block with the right forearm.

(Gunnun so palmok chookyo makgi)

16. Move the left foot to C forming a left walking stance toward C, at the same time executing a rising block with the left forearm.

(Gunnun so palmok chookyo makgi)

17. Move the right foot to C forming a right walking stance toward C, at the same time executing a rising block with the right forearm.

(Gunnun so palmok chookyo makgi)

18. Move the left foot to B turning counter clockwise to form a right L-stance toward B while executing a middle outward strike to B with the left knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde bakuro taerigi)

19. Move the right foot to B forming a right walking stance toward B while executing a high punch to B with the right fist.

(Gunnun so nopunde jirugi)

20. Move the right foot to A turning clockwise to form a left L-stance toward A while executing a middle outward strike to A with the right knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde bakuro taerigi)

21. Move the left foot to A forming a left walking stance toward A while executing a high punch to A with the left fist.

(Gunnun so nopunde jirugi)

END: Bring the left foot back to a ready posture.

Movements: 24

Meaning: Do San is the pseudonym of the patriot Ahn Chang-Ho (1878-1938). The 24 movements represent his entire life which he devoted to furthering the education of Korea and its independence movement.

Ready Posture: Parallel Ready Stance

  1. Move the left foot to B, forming a left walking stance toward B while executing a high side block to B with the left outer forearm.(Gunnun so bakat palmok nopunde yop makgi)
  2. Execute a middle punch to B with the right fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward B.
    (Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)
  3. Move the left foot on line AB, and then turn clockwise to form a right walking stance toward A while executing a high side block to A with the right outer forearm.(Gunnun so bakat palmok nopunde yop makgi)
  4. Execute a middle punch to A with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward A.
    (Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)
  5. Move the left foot to D, forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)
  1. Move the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a middle thrust to D with the right straight fingertip.(Gunnun so sun sonkut kaunde tulgi)
  2. Twist the right knife-hand together with the body counter clockwise until its palm faces downward and then move the left foot to D, turning counter clockwise to form a left walking stance toward D while executing a high side strike to D with the left back fist.(Jappyosul tae, gunnun so dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi)
  3. Move the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a high side strike to D with the right back fist. (Gunnun so dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi)
  4. Move the left foot to E, turning counter clockwise to form a left walking stance toward E while executing a high side block to E with the left outer forearm.(Gunnun so bakat palmok nopunde yop makgi)
  5. Execute a middle punch to E with the right fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward E.
    (Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)
  1. Move the left foot on line EF, and then turn clockwise to form a right walking stance toward F while executing a high side block to F with the right outer forearm.(Gunnun so bakat palmok nopunde yop makgi)
  2. Execute a middle punch to F with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward F.
    (Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)
  3. Move the left foot to CE forming a left walking stance toward CE, at the same time executing a high wedging block to CE with the outer forearm.(Gunnun so bakat palmok nopunde hechyo makgi)
  4. Execute a middle front snap kick to CE with the right foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 13.(Kaunde apcha busigi)
  5. Lower the right foot to CE forming a right walking stance toward CE while executing a middle punch to CE with the right fist.(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)
  6. Execute a middle punch to CE with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward CE.(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)Perform 15 and 16 in a fast motion.
  1. Move the right foot to CF forming a right walking stance toward CF while executing a high wedging block to CF with the outer forearm.(Gunnun so bakat palmok nopunde hechyo makgi)
  2. Execute a middle front snap kick to CF with the left foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 17.(Gunnun so bakat palmok nopunde hechyo makgi)
  3. Lower the left foot to CF forming a left walking stance toward CF while executing a middle punch to CF with the left fist.(Kaunde apcha busigi)
  4. Execute a middle punch to CF with the right fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward CF.(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)Perform 19 and 20 in a fast motion.
  5. Move the left foot to C forming a left walking stance toward C, at the same time executing a rising block with the left forearm.(Gunnun so palmok chookyo makgi)
  6. Move the right foot to C forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a rising block with the right forearm.(Gunnun so palmok chookyo makgi)
  7.  Move the left foot to B, turning counter clockwise to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a middle side strike to B with the left knife-hand.

(Annun so wen sonkal kaunde yop taerigi)

24. Bring the left foot to the right foot and then move the right foot to A forming a sitting stance toward D while executing a middle side strike to A with the right knife-hand.

(Annun so orun sonkal kaunde yop taerigi)

END: Bring the right foot back to a ready posture.

Movements: 28

Meaning: Won Hyo was the noted monk who introduced Buddhism to the Silla Dynasty in the year of 686 A.D.

Ready Posture: Close Ready Stance A

1. Move the left foot to B forming a right L-stance toward B while executing a twin forearm block.

(Niunja so sang palmok makgi)

2. Execute a high inward strike to B with the right knife-hand while bringing the left side fist in front of the right shoulder, maintaining a right L-stance toward B.

(Niunja so sonkal nopunde anuro taerigi)

3. Execute a middle punch to B with the left fist while forming a left fixed stance toward B, slipping the left foot to B.

(Gojung so kaunde yop jirugi)

4. Bring the left foot to the right foot and then move the right foot to A, forming a left L-stance toward A while executing a twin forearm block.

(Niunja so sang palmok makgi)

5. Execute a high inward strike to A with the left knife-hand while bringing the right side fist in front of the left shoulder, maintaining a left L-stance toward A.

(Niunja so sonkal nopunde anuro taerigi)

6. Execute a middle punch to A with the right fist while forming a right fixed stance toward A, slipping the right foot to A.

(Gojung so kaunde yop jirugi)

7. Bring the right foot to the left foot and then turn the face toward D while forming a right bending ready stance A toward D.

(guburyo junbi sogi A)

8. Execute a middle side piercing kick to D with the left foot.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

9. Lower the left foot to D forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

10. Move the right foot to D forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a guarding block to D with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

11. Move the left foot to D forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

12. Move the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a middle thrust to D with the right straight finger tip.

(Gunnun so sun sonkut kaunde tulgi)

13. Move the left foot to E turning counter clockwise to form a right L-stance toward E, at the same time executing a twin forearm block.

(Niunja so sang palmok makgi)

14. Execute a high inward strike to E with the right knife-hand while bringing the left side fist in front of the right shoulder, maintaining a right L-stance toward E.

(Niunja so sonkal nopunde anuro taerigi)

15. Execute a middle punch to E with the left fist while forming a left fixed stance toward E, slipping the left foot to E.

(Gojung so kaunde yop jirugi)

16. Bring the left foot to the right foot and then move the right foot to F, forming a left L-stance toward F while executing a twin forearm block.

(Niunja so sang palmok makgi)

17. Execute a high inward strike to F with the left knife-hand while bringing the right side fist in front of the left shoulder, maintaining a left L-stance toward F.

(Niunja so sonkal nopunde anuro taerigi)

18. Execute a middle punch to F with the right fist while forming a right fixed stance toward F, slipping the right foot to F.

(Gojung so kaunde yop jirugi)

19. Bring the right foot to the left foot and then move the left foot to C forming a left walking stance toward C while executing a circular block to CF with the right inner forearm.

(Gunnun so anpalmok dollimyo makgi)

20. Execute a low front snap kick to C with the right foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 19. (Najunde apcha busigi)

21. Lower the right foot to C forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a middle punch to C with the left fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)

22. Execute a circular block to CE with the left inner forearm while maintaining a right walking stance toward C.

(Gunnun so anpalmok dollimyo makgi)

23. Execute a low front snap kick to C with the left foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 22.

(Najunde apcha busigi)

24. Lower the left foot to C forming a left walking stance toward C while executing a middle punch to C with the right fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)

25. Turn the face toward C forming a left bending ready stance A toward C.

(Guburyo junbi sogi A)

26. Execute a middle side piercing kick to C with the right foot.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

27. Lower the right foot on line CD and then move the left foot to B, turning counter clockwise to form a right L-stance toward B, at the same executing a middle guarding block to B with the forearm.

(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

28. Bring the left foot to the right foot and then move the right foot to A forming a left L-stance toward A while executing a middle guarding clock to A with the forearm.

(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

END: Bring the right foot back to a ready posture.

Movements: 38

Meaning: Yul-Gok is the pseudonym of a great philosopher and scholar Yi I (1536-1584) nicknamed the ‘Confucius of Korea’. The 38 movements of this pattern represent his birthplace on 38 degrees latitude and the diagram represents the word ‘scholar’.

Ready Posture: Parallel Ready Stance

1. Move the left foot to B forming a sitting stance toward D while extending the left fist to D horizontally.

(Annun sogi)

2. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so orun joomuk kaunde ap jirugi)

3. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so wen joomuk kaunde ap jirugi)

Perform 2 and 3 in a fast motion.

4. Bring the left foot to the right foot and then move the right foot to A forming a sitting stance toward D while extending the right fist to D horizontally.

(Annun sogi)

5. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so wen joomuk kaunde ap jirugi)

6. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so orun joomuk kaunde ap jirugi)

Perform 5 and 6 in a fast motion.

7. Move the right foot to AD forming a right walking stance toward AD while executing a middle side block to AD with the right inner forearm.

(Gunnun so anpalmok kaunde yop makgi)

8. Execute a low front snap kick to AD with the left foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 7.

(Najunde apcha busigi)

9. Lower the left foot to AD forming a left walking stance toward AD while executing a middle punch to AD with the left fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

10. Execute a middle punch to AD with the right fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward AD.

(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)

Perform 9 and 10 in a fast motion.

11. Move the left foot to BD forming a left walking stance toward BD at the same time executing a middle side block to BD with the left inner forearm.

(Gunnun so anpalmok kaunde yop makgi)

12. Execute a low front snap kick to BD with the right foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 11.

(Najunde apcha busigi)

13. Lower the right foot to BD forming a right walking stance toward BD while executing a middle punch to BD with the right fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

14. Execute a middle punch to BD with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward BD.

(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)

Perform 13 and 14 in a fast motion.

15. Execute a middle hooking block to D with the right palm while forming a right walking stance toward D, pivoting with the left foot.

(Gunnun so sonbadak kaunde golcho makgi)

16. Execute a middle hooking block to D with the left palm while maintaining a right walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so sonbadak kaunde bandae golcho makgi)

17. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

Perform 16 and 17 in a connecting motion.

18. Move the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a middle hooking block to D with the left palm.

(Gunnun so sonbadak kaunde golcho makgi)

19. Execute a middle hooking block to D with the right palm while maintaining a left walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so sonbadak kaunde bandae golcho makgi)

20. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

Perform 19 and 20 in a connecting motion.

21. Move the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D at the same time executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

22. Turn the face toward D forming a right bending ready stance A toward D.

(Guburyo junbi sogi A)

23. Execute a middle side piercing kick to D with the left foot.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

24. Lower the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while striking the left palm with the right front elbow.

(Gunnun so ap palkup bandae taerigi)

25. Turn the face toward C forming a left bending ready stance A toward C.

(Guburyo junbi sogi A)

26. Execute a middle side piercing kick to C with the right foot.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

27. Lower the right foot to C forming a right walking stance toward C while striking the right palm with the left front elbow.

(Gunnun so ap palkup bandae taerigi)

28. Move the left foot to E forming a right L-stance toward E while executing a twin knife-hand block.

(Niunja so sang sonkal makgi)

29. Move the right foot to E forming a right walking stance toward E while executing a middle thrust to E with the right straight finger tip.

(Gunnun so sun sonkut kaunde tulgi)

30. Move the right foot to F turning clockwise to form a left L-stance toward F while executing a twin knife-hand block.

(Niunja so sang sonkal makgi)

31. Move the left foot to F forming a left walking stance toward F while executing a middle thrust to F with the left straight finger tip.

(Gunnun so sun sonkut kaunde tulgi)

32. Move the left foot to C forming a left walking stance toward C while executing a high side block to C with the left outer forearm.

(Gunnun so bakat palmok nopunde yop makgi)

33. Execute a middle punch to C with the right fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward C.

(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)

34. Move the right foot to C forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a high side block to C with the right outer forearm.

(Gunnun so bakat palmok nopunde yop makgi)

35. Execute a middle punch to C with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward C.

(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)

36. Jump to C forming a left X-stance toward B while executing a high side strike to C with the left back fist.

(Twigi, wen kyocha so dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi)

37. Move the right foot to A forming a right walking stance toward A at the same time executing a high block to A with the right double forearm.

(Gunnun so doo palmok nopunde makgi)

38. Bring the right foot to the left foot and then move the left foot to B forming a left walking stance toward B while executing a high block to B with the left double forearm.

(Gunnun so doo palmok nopunde makgi)

END: Bring the left foot back to a ready posture.

Movements: 32

Meaning: Joong-Gun is named after the patriot Ahn Joong-Gun who assassinated Hiro-Bumi Ito, the first Japanese governor-general of Korea, known as the man who played the leading part in the Korea- Japan merger. There are 32 movements in this pattern to represent Mr. Ahn’s age when he was executed in a Lui-Shung prison (1910)

Ready Posture: Close Ready Stance B

1. Move the left foot to B forming a right L-stance toward B while executing a middle block to B with the left reverse knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal dung kaunde makgi)

2. Execute a low side front snap kick to B with the left foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 1.

(Najunde yobap cha busigi)

3. Lower the left foot to B and then move the right foot to B forming a left rear foot stance toward B while executing an upward block with a right palm.

(Dwitbal so sonbadak bandae ollyo makgi)

4. Move the right foot to A forming a left L-stance toward A, at the same time executing a middle block to A with a right reverse knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal dung kaunde makgi)

5. Execute a low side front snap kick to A with the right foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 4.

(Najunde yobap cha busigi)

6. Lower the right foot to A and then move the left foot to A forming a right rear foot stance toward A while executing an upward block with a left palm.

(Dwitbal so sonbadak bandae ollyo makgi)

7. Move the left foot to D forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

8. Execute a right upper elbow strike while forming a left walking stance toward D, slipping the left foot to D.

(Gunnun so wi palkup bandae taerigi)

9. Move the right foot to D forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

10. Execute a left upper elbow strike while forming a right walking stance toward D, slipping the right foot to D.

(Gunnun so wi palkup bandae taerigi)

11. Move the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a high vertical punch to D with a twin fist.

(Gunnun so sang joomuk nopunde sewo jirugi)

12. Move the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing an upset punch to D with a twin fist.

(Gunnun so sang joomuk dwijibo jirugi)

13. Move the right foot on line CD and then turn counter clockwise to form a left walking stance toward C while executing a rising block with an X-fist.

(Gunnun so kyocha joomuk chookyo makgi)

14. Move the left foot to E forming a right L-stance toward E while executing a high side strike to E with the left back fist.

(Niunja so dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi)

15. Twist the left fist counter clockwise until the back fist faces downward, at the same time forming a left walking stance toward E, slipping the left foot to E.

(Gunnun so jappyosul tae)

16. Execute a high punch to E with the right fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward E.

(gunnun so nopunde bandae jirugi)

Perform 15 and 16 in a fast motion.

17. Bring the left foot to the right foot and then move the right foot to F, forming a left L-stance toward F while executing a high side strike to F with a right back fist.

(Niunja so dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi)

18. Twist the right fist clockwise until the back fist faces downward, at the same time forming a right walking stance toward F, slipping the right foot to F.

(Gunnun so jappyosul tae)

19. Execute a high punch to F with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward F.

(Gunnun so nopunde bandae jirugi)

Perform 18 and 19 in a fast motion.

20. Bring the right foot to the left foot and then move the left foot to C forming a left walking stance toward C while executing a high block to C with a left double forearm.

(Gunnun so doo palmok nopunde makgi)

21. Execute a middle punch to C with the left fist while forming a right L-stance toward C, pulling the left foot.

(Niunja so kaunde yop jirugi)

22. Execute a middle side piercing kick to C with the right foot.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

23. Lower the right foot to C forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a high block to C with the right double forearm.

(Gunnun so doo palmok nopunde makgi)

24. Execute a middle punch to C with the right fist while forming a left L-stance toward C, pulling the right foot.

(Niunja so kaunde yop jirugi)

25. Execute a middle side piercing kick to C with the left foot.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

26. Lower the left foot to C forming a right L-stance toward C while executing a middle guarding block to C with the forearm.

(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

27. Execute a pressing block with the right palm while forming a left low stance toward C, slipping the left foot to C.

(Nachuo so sonbadak bandae noollo makgi)

Perform in slow motion.

28. Move the right foot to C forming a left L-stance toward C while executing a middle guarding block to C with the forearm.

(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

29. Execute a pressing block with the left palm while forming a right low stance toward C, slipping the right foot to C.

(Nachuo so sonbadak bandae noollo makgi)

Perform in a slow motion.

30. Bring the left foot to the right foot forming a close stance toward A while executing an angle punch with the right fist.

(Moa so orun giokja jirugi)

Perform in slow motion.

31. Move the right foot to A forming a right fixed stance toward A while executing a U-shape block to A.

(Gojung so digutja makgi)

32. Bring the right foot to the left foot and then move the left foot to B forming a left fixed stance toward B, at the same time executing a U-shape block to B.

(Gojung so digutja makgi)

END: Bring the left foot back to a ready posture.

Movements: 37

Meaning: Toi Gye is the pen name of the noted scholar Yi Hwang (16 century AD), an authority on neo-Confucianism. The 37 movements of the pattern refer to his birthplace on 37-degree latitude, and the diagram represents “scholar”.

Ready Posture: Close Ready Stance B

1. Move the left foot to B forming a right L-stance toward B while executing a middle block to B with the left inner forearm.

(Niunja so anpalmok kaunde makgi)

2. Execute a low thrust to B with the right upset finger tip while forming a left walking stance toward B, slipping the left foot to B.

(Gunnun so dwijibun sonkut najunde tulgi)

3. Bring the left foot to the right foot to form a close stance toward D while executing a side back strike to C with the right back fist, extending the left arm to the side downward.

(Moa so orun dung joomuk yopdwi taerigi)

Perform in slow motion.

4. Move the right foot to A forming a left L-stance toward A while executing a middle block to A with the right inner forearm.

(Niunja so anpalmok kaunde makgi)

5. Execute a low thrust to A with the left upset finger tip while forming a right walking stance toward A, slipping the right foot to A.

(Gunnun so dwijibun sonkut najunde tulgi)

6. Bring the right foot to the left foot to form a close stance toward D while executing a side back strike to C with the left back fist, extending the right arm to the side downward.

(Moa so wen dung joomuk yopdwi taerigi)

Perform in slow motion.

7. Move the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a pressing block with an X-fist.

(Gunnun so kyocha joomuk noollo makgi)

8. Execute a high vertical punch to D with a twin fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so sang joomuk nopunde sewo jirugi)

Perform 7 and 8 in a continuous motion.

9. Execute a middle front snap kick to D with the right foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 8.

(Kaunde apcha busigi)

10. Lower the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

11. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)

12. Bring the left foot to the right foot forming a close stance toward F while executing a twin side elbow thrust.

(Moa so sang yop palkup tulgi)

Perform in slow motion.

13. Move the right foot to F in a stamping motion forming a sitting stance toward C while executing a W-shape block to C with the right outer forearm.

(Annun so bakat palmok san makgi)

14. Move the left foot to F in a stamping motion turning clockwise to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a W-shape block to D with the left outer forearm.

(Annun so bakat palmok san makgi)

15. Move the left foot to E in a stamping motion turning clockwise to form a sitting stance toward C while executing a W-shape block to C with the left outer forearm.

(Annun so bakat palmok san makgi)

16. Move the right foot to E in a stamping motion turning counter clockwise to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a W-shape block to D with the right outer forearm.

(Annun so bakat palmok san makgi)

17. Move the left foot to E in a stamping motion turning clockwise to form a sitting stance toward C while executing a W-shape block to C with the left outer forearm.

(Annun so bakat palmok san makgi)

18. Move the left foot to F in a stamping motion turning clockwise to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a W-shape block to D with the left outer forearm.

(Annun so bakat palmok san makgi)

19. Bring the right foot to the left foot and then move the left foot to D forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a low pushing block to D with the left double forearm.

(Niunja so doo palmok najunde miro makgi)

20. Extend both hands upward as if to grab the opponent’s head while forming a left walking stance toward D, slipping the left foot to D.

(gunnun sogi)

21. Execute an upward kick with the right knee while pulling both hands downward.

(Moorup ollyo chagi)

22. Lower the right foot to the left foot and then move the left foot to C forming a right L-stance toward C while executing a middle guarding block to C with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

23. Execute a low side front snap kick to C with the left foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 22.

(Najunde yobap cha busigi)

24. Lower the left foot to C forming a left walking stance toward C while executing a high thrust to C with the left flat finger tip.

(Gunnun so opun sonkut nopunde tulgi)

25. Move the right foot to C forming a left L-stance toward C while executing a middle guarding block to C with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

26. Execute a low side front snap kick to C with the right foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 25. (Najunde yobap cha busigi)

27. Lower the right foot to C forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a high thrust to C with the right flat finger tip.

(Gunnun so opun sonkut nopunde tulgi)

28. Move the right foot to D forming a right L-stance toward C while executing a side back strike to D with the right back fist and a low block to C with the left forearm.

(Niunja so dung joomuk baro yopdwi taerigi wa palmok najunde bandae makgi)

29. Jump to C forming a right X-stance toward A while executing a pressing block with an X-fist.

(Twigi, orun kyocha so kyocha joomuk noollo makgi)

30. Move the right foot to C forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a high block to C with the right double forearm.

(Gunnun so doo palmok nopunde makgi)

31. Move the left foot to B forming a right L-stance toward B while executing a low guarding block to B with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal najunde daebi makgi)

32. Execute a circular block to BD with the right inner forearm while forming a left walking stance toward B, slipping the left foot to B.

(Gunnun so anpalmok dollimyo makgi)

33. Bring the left foot to the right foot and then move the right foot to A forming a left L-stance toward A, at the same time executing a low guarding block to A with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal najunde daebi makgi)

34. Execute a circular block to AD with the left inner forearm while forming a right walking stance toward A, slipping the right foot to A.

(Gunnun so anpalmok dollimyo makgi)

35. Execute a circular block to CE with the right inner forearm while forming a left walking stance toward CE.

(Gunnun so anpalmok dollimyo makgi)

36. Execute a circular block to AD with the left inner forearm while forming a right walking stance toward A.

(Gunnun so anpalmok dollimyo makgi)

37. Move the right foot on line AB to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.

(Annun so orun joomuk kaunde jirugi)

END: Bring the right foot back to a ready posture.

Movements: 29

Meaning: Hwa-Rang is named after the Hwa Rang youth group that originated in the Silla dynasty in the early 7th century. The 29 movements refer to the 29th Infantry Division commanded by General Choi in 1953 where TaekwonDo was developed into maturity

Ready Posture: Close Ready Stance C

1. Move the left foot to B to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a middle pushing block to D with the left palm.

(Annun so wen sonbadak kaunde yobap miro makgi)

2. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so orun joomuk kaunde ap jirugi)

3. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so wen joomuk kaunde ap jirugi)

4. Execute a twin forearm block while forming a left L-stance toward A, pivoting with the left foot.

(Niunja so sang palmok makgi)

5. Execute an upward punch with the left fist while pulling the right side fist in front of the left shoulder, maintaining a left L-stance toward A.

(Niunja so baro ollyo jirugi)

6. Execute a middle punch to A with the right fist while forming a right fixed stance toward A in a sliding motion.

(Gojung so kaunde yop jirugi)

7. Execute a downward strike with the right knife-hand while forming a left vertical stance toward A, pulling the right foot.

(Soojik so sonkal bandae naeryo taerigi)

8. Move the left foot to A forming a left walking stance toward A while executing a middle punch to A with the left fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

9. Move the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a low block to D with the left forearm.

(Gunnun so palmok najunde makgi)

10. Move the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

11. Pull the left foot toward the right foot while bringing the left palm to the right forefist, at the same time bending the right elbow about 45 degrees outward.

12. Execute a middle side piercing kick to D with the right foot while pulling both hands in the opposite direction and then lower it to D forming a left L-stance toward D, at the same time executing a middle outward strike to D with the right knife-hand.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi, niunja so sonkal kaunde bakuro taerigi)

13. Move the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the left fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

14. Move the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D at the same time executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

15. Move the left foot to E turning counter clockwise to form a right L-stance toward E while executing a middle guarding block to E with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

16. Move the right foot to E forming a right walking stance toward E while executing a middle thrust to E with the right straight finger tip.

(Gunnun so sun sonkut kaunde tulgi)

17. Move the right foot on line EF forming a right L-stance toward F while executing a middle guarding block to F with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

18. Execute a high turning kick to DF with the right foot and then lower it to F.

(Nopunde dollyo chagi)

19. Execute a high turning kick to CF with the left foot and then lower it to F forming a right L-stance toward F while executing a middle guarding block to F with a knife-hand.

(Nopunde dollyo chagi, niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

Perform 18 and 19 in a fast motion.

20. Move the left foot to C forming a left walking stance toward C while executing a low block to C with the left forearm.

(Gunnun so palmok najunde makgi)

21. Execute a middle punch to C with the right fist while forming a right L-stance toward C, pulling the left foot.

(Niunja so kaunde baro jirugi)

22. Move the right foot to C forming a left L-stance toward C while executing a middle punch to C with the left fist. (Niunja so kaunde baro jirugi)

23. Move the left foot to C forming a right L-stance toward C while executing a middle punch to C with the right fist.

(Niunja so kaunde baro jirugi)

24. Execute a pressing block with an X-fist while forming a left walking stance toward C, slipping the left foot to C.

(Gunnun so kyocha joomuk noollo makgi)

25. Move the right foot to C in a sliding motion forming a right L-stance toward D while thrusting to C with the right side elbow.

(Niunja so yop palkup tulgi)

26. Bring the left foot to the right foot, turning counter clockwise to form a close stance toward B while executing a side front block with the right inner forearm while extending the left forearm to the side downward.

(Moa so orun anpalmok yobap makgi)

27. Execute a side front block with the left inner forearm, extending the right forearm to the side downward while maintaining a close stance toward B.

(Moa so wen anpalmok yobap makgi)

28. Move the left foot to B forming a right L-stance toward B at the same time executing a middle guarding block to B with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

29. Bring the left foot to the right foot and then move the right foot to A forming a left L-stance toward A while executing a middle guarding block to A with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

END: Bring the right foot back to a ready posture.

Movements: 30

Meaning: Choong-Moo was the name given to the great Admiral Yi Sun-Sin of the Yi Dynasty. He was reported to have invented the first armoured battleship (Kobukson) in 1592, which is said to have been the precursor of the modern day submarine. The reason this pattern ends with a left-handed attack is to symbolise his regrettable death having had no chance to show his unrestrained potentiality, checked by the forced reservation of his loyalty to his king.

Ready Posture: Parallel Ready Stance

1. Move the left foot to B forming a right L-stance toward B while executing a twin knife-hand block.

(Niunja so sang sonkal makgi)

2. Move the right foot to B forming a right walking stance toward B while executing a high front strike to B with the right knife-hand and bring the left back hand in front of the forehead.

(Gunnun so sonkal nopunde ap taerigi)

3. Move the right foot to A turning clockwise to form a left L-stance toward A while executing a middle guarding block to A with a knife-hand.

(niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

4. Move the left foot to A forming a left walking stance toward A while executing a high thrust to A with the left flat finger tip.

(Gunnun so opun sonkut nopunde tulgi)

5. Move the left foot to D forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

6. Turn the face to C forming a left bending ready stance A toward C.

(Guburyo junbi sogi A)

7. Execute a middle side piercing kick to C with the right foot.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

8. Lower the right foot to C forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

9. Execute a flying side piercing kick to D with the right foot soon after moving it to D and then land to D forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.

(Twimyo yopcha jirugi, wen niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

10. Move the left foot to E turning counter clockwise to form a right L-stance toward E at the same time executing a low block to E with the left forearm.

(Niunja so palmok najunde yop makgi)

11. Extend both hands upward as if to grab the opponent’s head while forming a left walking stance toward E, slipping the left foot.

12. Execute an upward kick to E with the right knee pulling both hands downward.

(Moorup ollyo chagi)

13. Lower the right foot to the left foot and then move the left foot to F forming a left walking stance toward F while executing a high front strike to F with the right reverse knife-hand, bringing the left back hand under the right elbow joint.

(Gunnun so sonkal dung nopunde bandae ap taerigi)

14. Execute a high turning kick to DF with the right foot and then lower it to the left foot.

(Nopunde dollyo chagi)

15. Execute a middle back piercing kick to F with the left foot.

(Kaunde dwitcha jirugi)

Perform 14 and 15 in a fast motion.

16. Lower the left foot to F forming a left L-stance toward E while executing a middle guarding block to E with the forearm.

(niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

17. Execute a middle turning kick to DE with the left foot.

(kaunde dollyo chagi)

18. Lower the left foot to the right foot and then move the right foot to C forming a right fixed stance toward C while executing a U-shape block toward C.

(Gojung so digutja makgi)

19. Jump and spin around counter clockwise, landing on the same spot to form a left L-stance toward C while executing a middle guarding block to C with a knife-hand.

(Twigi, wen niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

20. Move the left foot to C forming a left walking stance toward C at the same time executing a low thrust to C with the right upset fingertip.

(Gunnun so dwijibun sonkut najunde tulgi)

21. Execute a side back strike to D with the right back fist and a low block to C with the left forearm while forming a right L-stance toward C, pulling the left foot.

(Niunja so dung joomuk baro yopdwi taerigi wa palmok najunde bandae makgi)

22. Move the right foot to C forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a middle thrust to C with the right straight finger tip.

(Gunnun so sun sonkut kaunde tulgi)

23. Move the left foot to B turning counter clockwise to form a left walking stance toward B while executing a high block to B with the left double forearm.

(Gunnun so doo palmok nopunde makgi)

24. Move the right foot to B forming a sitting stance toward C while executing a middle front block to C with the right forearm and then a high side strike to B with the right back fist.

(Annun so orun palmok kaunde ap makgi, orun dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi)

25. Execute a middle side piercing kick to A with the right foot turning counter clockwise and then lower it to A.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

26. Execute a middle side piercing kick to A with the left foot turning clockwise.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

27. Lower the left foot to A and then execute a checking block to B with an X-knife-hand while forming a left L-stance toward B pivoting with the left foot.

(Niunja so kyocha sonkal momchau makgi)

28. Move the left foot to B forming a left walking stance toward B while executing an upward block to B with a twin palm.

(Gunnun so sang sonbadak ollyo makgi)

29. Move the left foot on line AB and then execute a rising block with the right forearm while forming a right walking stance toward A.

(Gunnun so palmok chookyo makgi)

30. Execute a middle punch to A with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward A.

(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)

END: Bring the left foot back to a ready posture.

Black Belt 1st-3rd

Movements: 39

Meaning: Kwang-Gae Is named after the famous Kwang-Gae-Toh-Wang, the 19th King of the Koguryo Dynasty, who regained all the lost territories including the greater part of Manchuria. The diagram (+) represents the expansion and recovery of lost territory. The 39 movements refer to the first two figures of 391 AD, the year he came to the throne.

Ready Posture: Parallel Stance with a Heaven Hand

  1. Bring the left foot to the right foot, forming a close ready stance B toward D, bringing both hands in a circular motion.(Moa junbi sogi B)
  2. Move the left foot to D, forming a left walking stance toward D while executing an upset punch to D with the right fist.
    (Gunnun so bandae dwijibo jirugi)Perform in slow motion.
  3. Move the right foot to D, forming a right walking stance toward D while executing an upset punch to D with the left fist.
    (Gunnun so bandae dwijibo jirugi)Perform in slow motion.
  4. Move the left foot to the side front of the right foot, and then move the right foot to D, forming a right walking stance toward D, at the same time executing a high hooking block to D with the right palm.(Gunnun so sonbadak nopunde golcho makgiPerform in a double stepping motion.
  1. Move the right foot to C in a sliding motion to form a right L-stance toward D, at the same time executing a low guarding block to D with a knife-hand.(Niunja so sonkal najunde daebi makgi)
  2. Move the right foot to the side front of the left foot and then move the left foot to D, forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a high hooking block to D with the left palm.(Gunnun so sonbadak nopunde golcho makgi)Perform in a double stepping motion.
  3. Move the left foot to C in a sliding motion forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a low guarding block to D with a knife-hand.(Niunja so sonkal najunde daebi makgi)
  4. Move the left foot to D, forming a right rear foot stance toward D while executing a high guarding block to D with a knife-hand.(Dwitbal so sonkal nopunde daebi makgi)
  5. Move the right foot to D, forming a left rear foot stance toward D while executing a high guarding block to D with a knife-hand.(Dwitbal so sonkal nopunde daebi makgi)
  1. Move the left foot to the side front of the right foot and then turn counter-clockwise, pivoting with the left foot, to form a left walking stance toward C while executing an upward block to C with the right palm.(Gunnun so sonbadak bandae ollyo makgi)Perform in a slow motion.
  2. Move the right foot to C, forming a right walking stance toward C while executing an upward block to C with the left palm.(Gunnun so sonbadak bandae ollyo makgi)Perform in a slow motion.
  3. Execute a low front block with the right knife- hand in a circular motion, hitting the left palm while bringing the left foot to the right foot to form a close stance toward C.(Moa so orun sonkal najunde ap makgi)
  4. Execute a pressing kick to E with the left foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 12.(Bakuro noollo chagi)
  5. Execute a middle side piercing kick to E with the left foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 13.(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)Perform 13 and 14 in a consecutive kick.
  1. Lower the left foot to E, forming a right L-stance toward E while executing a high inward strike to E with the right knife-hand and bringing the left side fist in front of the right shoulder.(Niunja so sonkal nopunde anuro taerigi)
  2. Execute a downward strike to E with the left side fist while forming a close stance toward C, pulling the left foot to the right foot.(Moa so wen yop joomuk naeryo taerigi)
  3. Execute a pressing kick to F with the right foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 16.(Bakuro noollo chagi)
  4. Execute a middle side piercing kick to F with the right foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 17.(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)Perform 17 and 18 in a consecutive kick.
  5. Lower the right foot to F, forming a left L-stance toward F while executing a high inward strike to F with the knife-hand and bringing the right side fist in front of the left shoulder.(Niunja so sonkal nopunde anuro taerigi)
  6. Execute a downward strike to F with the right side fist while forming a close stance toward C, pulling the right foot to the left foot.(Moa so orun yop joomuk naeryo taerigi)
  1. Move the left foot to C, forming a left low stance toward C while executing a pressing block with the right palm.(Nachuo so sonbadak bandae noollo makgi)Perform in slow motion.
  2. Move the right foot to C, forming a right low stance toward C while executing a pressing block with the left palm.
    (Nachuo so sonbadak bandae noollo makgi)Perform in a slow motion.
  3. Move the right foot to D in a stamping motion to form a sitting stance toward F while executing a high side strike to D with the right back fist.(Annun so orun dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi)
  4. Execute a middle block to D with the right double forearm while forming a right walking stance toward D, pivoting with the left foot.(Gunnun so doo palmok kaunde makgi)
  5. Execute a low block to D with the left forearm while shifting to C, maintaining a right walking stance toward D, keeping the position of the right hand as it was in 24.(Gunnun so palmok najunde bandae makgi)
  1. Execute a high thrust to D with the right flat fingertip while forming a right low stance toward D, slipping the right foot to D. (Nachuo so opun sonkut nopunde tulgi)Perform in slow motion.
  2. Move the left foot on line CD in a stamping motion to form a sitting stance toward F while executing a high side strike to C with the left back fist.(Annun so wen dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi)
  3. Execute a middle block to C with the left double forearm while forming a left walking stance toward C, pivoting with the left foot.(Gunnun so doo palmok kaunde makgi)
  4. Execute a low reverse block to C with the right forearm while shifting to D, maintaining a left walking stance toward C, keeping the position of the left hand as it was in 28.(Gunnun so palmok najunde bandae makgi)
  5. Execute a high thrust to C with the left flat fingertip while forming a left low stance toward C, slipping the left foot to C. (Nachuo so opun sonkut nopunde tulgi)Perform in slow motion.

31. Move the right foot to C in a stamping motion, forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a high vertical punch to C with a twin fist.

(Gunnun so sang joomuk nopunde sewo jirugi)

32. Move the left foot to A in a stamping motion, forming a left walking stance toward A while executing an upset punch to A with a twin fist.

(Gunnun so sang joomuk dwijibo jirugi)

33. Execute a middle front snap kick to A with the right foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 32.

(Kaunde apcha busigi)

34. Lower the right foot to the left foot, and then move the left foot to A to form a left L-stance toward B while executing a middle guarding block to B with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

35. Move the left foot to B, forming a left walking stance toward B while executing a high punch to B with the left fist.

(Gunnun so nopunde jirugi)

36. Move the right foot to B in stamping motion, forming a right walking stance toward B while executing an upset punch to B with a twin fist.

(Gunnun so sang joomuk dwijibo jirugi)

37. Execute a middle front snap kick to B with the left foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 36.

(Kaunde apcha busigi)

38. Lower the left foot to the right foot, and then move the right foot to B to form a right L-stance toward A at the same time executing a middle guarding block to A with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

39. Move the right foot to A, forming a right walking stance toward A while executing a high punch to A with the right fist.

(Gunnun so nopunde jirugi)

END: Bring the left foot back to a ready posture.

Movements: 36

Meaning: Po-Eun is the pseudonym of a loyal subject Choong Mong-Chu (1400) who was a famous poet and whose poem “I would not serve a second master though I might be crucified a hundred times” is known to every Korean.He was also a pioneer in the field of physics. The diagram ( – ) represents his unerring loyalty to the king and country towards the end of the Koryo Dynasty.

Ready Posture: Parallel Stance with a Heaven Hand

  1. Move the left foot to B, forming a right L-stance toward B while executing a middle guarding block to B with the forearm.(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)
  2. Pull the right foot to the left knee joint to form a left one-leg stance toward D, at the same time lifting both fists while turning the face toward A.(Waebal sogi)
  3. Execute a pressing kick to A with the right foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 2.(Bakuro noollo chagi)
  4. Lower the right foot to A to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a middle side strike to A with the right knife-hand.(Annun so orun sonkal kaunde yop taerigi)
  5. Execute an angle punch with the left fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.(Annun so wen joomuk giokja jirugi)
  1. Execute a pressing block with the left forefist while executing a side front block with the right inner forearm, maintaining a sitting stance toward D.(Annun so wen ap joomuk noollo makgi wa orun anpalmok yobap makgi)
  2. Execute a pressing block with the right forefist and a side front block with the left inner forearm while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.(Annun so orun ap joomuk noollo makgi wa wen anpalmok yobap makgi)
  3. Execute a middle wedging block with the inner forearm while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.(Annun so anpalmok kaunde hechyo makgi)
  4. Thrust to C with the right back elbow supporting the right forefist with the left palm keeping the face as it was in 8 while maintaining a sitting stance towards D.(Annun so orun dwit palkup tulgi)
  5. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist slipping the left palm up to the right elbow joint while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.(Annun so orun joomuk kaunde jirugi)
  1. Thrust to C with the left back elbow supporting the left forefist with right palm, keeping the face as it was in 10 while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.(Annun so wen dwit palkup tulgi)
  2. Execute a right horizontal punch to A while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.(Annun so orun soopyong jirugi)Perform 6 through 12 in a continuous motion.
  3. Cross the left foot over the right foot forming a right X-stance toward D while executing a low front block to D with the right outer forearm and bringing the left finger belly on the right under forearm.(Kyocha so bakat palmok najunde baro ap makgi)
  4. Move the right foot to A forming a left L-stance toward A at the same time executing a U-shape grasp to A.(Niunja so digutja japgi)
  5. Bring the left foot to the right foot forming a close stance toward D while executing a horizontal thrust with a twin elbow, turning the face toward B.(Moa so sang palkup soopyong tulgi)Perform in slow motion.

16. Move the left foot to B to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a side back strike to C with the right back fist and extending the left arm to the side downward.

(Annun so orun dung joomuk yopdwi taerigi)

17. Cross the right foot over the left foot forming a left X-stance toward D while executing a low front block with the left outer forearm and bringing the right finger belly to the left side fist.

(Kyocha so bakat palmok najunde baro ap makgi)

18. Move the left foot to B to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a low guarding block to B with a reverse knife-hand.

(Annun so sonkal najunde B-bang daebi makgi)

19. Execute a forearm middle guarding block to A while forming a left L-stance toward A pivoting with left foot.

(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

20. Pull the left foot to the right knee joint to form a right one-leg stance toward D, at the same time lifting both fists while turning the face toward B.

(Waebal sogi)

21. Execute a pressing kick to B with the left foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 20.

(Bakuro noollo chagi)

22. Lower the left foot to B to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a middle side strike to B with the left knife-hand.

(Annun so wen sonkal kaunde yop taerigi)

23. Execute an angle punch with the right fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so orun joomuk giokja jirugi)

24. Execute a pressing block with the right, forefist while executing a side front block with the left inner forearm, maintaining a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so orun ap joomuk noollo makgi wa wen anpalmok yobap makgi)

25. Execute a pressing block with the left forefist and a side front block with the right inner forearm while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so wen ap joomuk noollo makgi wa orun anpalmok yobap makgi)

26. Execute a middle wedging block with the inner forearm while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so anpalmok kaunde hechyo makgi)

27. Thrust to C with the left back elbow supporting the left forefist with the right palm keeping the face as it was in 26 while maintaining a sitting stance towards D.

(Annun so wen dwit palkup tulgi)

28. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist slipping the right palm up to the left elbow joint while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so wen joomuk kaunde jirugi)

29. Thrust to C with the right back elbow supporting the right forefist with left palm, keeping the face as it was in 28 while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so orun dwit palkup tulgi)

30. Execute a left horizontal punch to B while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so left soopyong jirugi)

Perform 24 through 30 in a continuous motion.

31. Cross the right foot over the left foot forming a left X-stance toward D while executing a low front block to D with the left outer forearm and bringing the right finger belly on the left under forearm.

(Kyocha so bakat palmok najunde baro ap makgi)

32. Move the left foot to B forming a right L-stance toward B at the same time executing a U-shape grasp to B (Niunja so digutja japgi)

33. Bring the right foot to the left foot forming a close stance toward D while executing a horizontal thrust with a twin elbow, turning the face toward A.

(Moa so sang palkup soopyong tulgi)

Perform in slow motion.

34. Move the right foot to A to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a side back strike to C with the left back fist and extending the right arm to the side downward.

(Annun so wen dung joomuk yopdwi taerigi)

35. Cross the left foot over the right foot forming a right X-stance toward D while executing a low front block with the right outer forearm and bringing the left finger belly to the right side fist.

(Kyocha so bakat palmok najunde baro ap makgi)

36. Move the right foot to A to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a low guarding block to A with a reverse knife-hand.

(Annun so sonkal najunde A-bang daebi makgi)

END: Bring the left foot back to a ready posture.

Movements: 44

Meaning: Ge-Baek is named after Gae-Baek, a great general in the Baek Je Dynasty (660 A.D.). The diagram ( I ) represents his severe and strict military discipline.

  1. Move the right foot to C forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a checking block D with an X-knife-hand.(Niunja so kyocha sonkal momchau makgi)
  2. Execute a low twisting kick to D with the right foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 1.(Najunde bituro chagi)
  3. Lower the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)
  4. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward D.(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)Perform 3 and 4 in a fast motion.
  5. Move the right foot to C forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a rising block with the left forearm.(Gunnun so palmok chookyo makgi)
  1. Execute a low block to D with the left forearm while maintaining a left walking stance toward D.(Gunnun so palmok najunde makgi)Perform 5 and 6 in a continuous motion.
  2. Execute a high block to AD with a double arc hand while looking through it maintaining a left walking stance toward D.(Gunnun so nopunde doo bandalson makgi)
  3. Turn the face toward D while forming a right bending ready stance A toward D.(Guburyo junbi sogi A)
  4. Lower the left foot to AD to form a sitting stance toward AC while executing a scooping block to AC with the left palm.(Annun so wen sonbadak duro makgi)
  5. Execute a middle punch to AC with the right fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward AC.(Annun so orun joomuk kaunde jirugi)Perform 9 and 10 in a connecting motion.
  6. Execute a front strike to AC with the left back fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward AC.(Annun so wen dung joomuk ap taerigi)

12. Move the right foot on line AB and then move the left foot to C forming a right L-stance toward C while executing a middle guarding block to C with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

13. Execute a low side front snap kick to C with the left foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 12.

(Najunde yobap cha busigi)

14. Lower the left foot to C forming a left low stance toward C while executing a high thrust to C with the left flat finger tip.

(Nachuo so opun sonkut nopunde tulgi)

15. Execute a high thrust to C with the right flat finger tip while maintaining a left low stance toward C.

(Nachuo so opun sonkut nopunde bandae tulgi)

16. Execute a middle side piercing kick to C with the right foot while pulling both hands in the opposite direction.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

17. Lower the right foot to C forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.

(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

  1. Move the right foot to D turning counter clockwise to form a right L-stance toward C while executing a middle guarding block to C with the forearm.(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)
  2. Move the left foot to D turning counter clockwise to form a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.
    (Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)
  3. Move the left foot on line CD to form a sitting stance toward A while executing a right 9-shape block.(Annun so orun gutja makgi)
  4. Move the right foot to D, turning counter-clockwise to form a left walking stance toward C while executing a low block to C with the left knife-hand.(Gunnun so sonkal najunde makgi)
  5. Execute a middle turning kick to BC with the right foot and then lower it to C.(Kaunde dollyo chagi)
  6. Execute a flying side piercing kick to C with the right foot.(Twimyo yopcha jirugi)Perform 22 and 23 in a fast motion.

24. Land to C to form a right walking stance toward C while executing a high vertical punch to C with a twin fist.

(Gunnun so sang joomuk nopunde sewo jirugi)

25. Execute a high block to AC with a double arc- hand while looking through it maintaining a right walking stance toward C.

(Gunnun so nopunde doo bandalson makgi)

26. Execute an upset punch to C with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward C.

(Gunnun so bandae dwijibo jirugi)

27. Move the right foot on line CD, forming a left walking stance toward D while striking the left palm with the right front elbow.

(Gunnun so ap palkup bandae taerigi)

28. Jump to D, forming a right X-stance toward BD while executing a high block to D with the right double forearm.

(Twigi, orun kyocha so doo palmok nopunde makgi)

29. Move the left foot to BC to form a sitting stance toward BD, at the same time executing a scooping block to BD with the right palm.

(Annun so orun sonbadak duro makgi)

  1. Execute a middle punch to BD with the left fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward BD.(Annun so wen joomuk kaunde ap jirugi)Perform 29 and 30 in a connecting motion.
  2. Execute a front strike to BD with the right back fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward BD.(Annun so orun dung joomuk ap taerigi)
  3. Move the left foot to C, forming a left walking stance toward C, at the same time executing a high front strike to C with the right reverse knife-hand.(Gunnun so sonkal dung nopunde bandae ap taerigi)
  4. Move the left foot to A about half a shoulder width while executing a middle turning kick to C with the right foot.(Kaunde dollyo chagi)
  5. Lower the right foot to C, and then turn counter-clockwise to form a left walking stance toward D, pivoting with the right foot while executing a high vertical punch to D with a twin fist.(Gunnun so sang joomuk nopunde sewo jirugi)
  6. Execute a middle punch to D with the right middle knuckle fist, bringing the left side first in front of the right shoulder while forming a right L-stance toward D pulling the left foot.(Niunja so joongji joomuk kaunde baro jirugi)
  1. Move the right foot to D to form a sitting stance toward B, at the same time executing left 9-shape block.(Annun so wen gutja makgi)
  2. Execute a low guarding block to C with a reverse knife-hand while maintaining a sitting stance toward B.(Annun so sonkal dung najunde C-bang daebi makgi)
  3. Execute a low guarding block to D with a knife-hand while maintaining a sitting stance toward B.(Annun so sonkal najunde D-bang daebi makgi)Perform 37 and 38 in a continuous motion.
  4. Move the left foot to D in a stamping motion to form a sitting stance toward A while executing a W-shape block with the outer forearm.(Annun so wen bakat palmok san makgi)
  5. Move the left foot to C in a stamping motion to form a sitting stance toward B while executing a W-shape block with the outer forearm.(Annun so wen bakat palmok san makgi)
  6. Move the right foot to C forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a rising block with the right forearm.(Gunnun so palmok chookyo makgi)

42. Execute a middle punch to C with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward C.

(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)

43. Move the right foot on line CD forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a rising block with the left forearm.

(Gunnun so palmok chookyo makgi)

44. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)

END: Bring the right foot back to a ready posture.

Movements: 45

Meaning: Eui-Am is the pseudonym of Son Byong Hi, leader of the Korean independence movement on March1, 1919. The 45 movements refer to his age when he changed the name of Dong Hak (Oriental Culture) to Chondo Kyo (Heavenly Way Religion) in 1905. The diagram (I) represents his indomitable spirit, displayed while dedicating himself to the prosperity of his nation.

Ready Posture: Close Ready Stance D

  1. Move the right foot to C forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a low inward block to D with the right knife-hand.(Gunnun so sonkal najunde bandae anuro makgi)
  2. Move the left foot to C forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a high side block to D with the left outer forearm.(Gunnun so bakat palmok nopunde bandae yop makgi)
  3. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward D.(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)
  4. Execute a low twisting kick to D with the left foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 3.(Najunde bituro chagi)
  5. Lower the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a downward block with an x-fist.(Gunnun so kyocha joomuk naeryo makgi)
  1. Execute a rising block with the right knife-hand, maintaining a left walking stance toward D.(Gunnun so sonkal bandae chookyo makgi)Perform 5 and 6 in a continuous motion.
  2. Jump to D, forming a right X-stance toward BD while executing a high side strike to D with the right back fist bringing the left finger belly to the right side fist.(Twigi, orun kyocha so dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi)
  3. Move the left foot to C forming a right L-stance toward C while executing a middle punch to C with the left fist.(Niunja so kaunde yop jirugi)
  4. Execute a middle reverse turning kick to AC with the right foot.(Kaunde bandae dollyo chagi)
  5. Lower the right foot to C in a stamping motion to form a sitting stance toward A while executing a middle side strike to C with the right knife-hand.(Annun so orun sonkal kaunde yop taerigi)
  6. Execute a middle side piercing kick to C with the left foot while turning clockwise pulling both hands in the opposite direction.(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)
  1. Lower the left foot to C forming a left walking stance toward C while executing a high crescent punch with the right fist.(Gunnun so nopunde bandae bandal jirugi)
  2. Execute a middle turning punch with the left fist while forming a parallel stance toward C pulling the right foot.
    (Narani so wen joomuk kaunde dollyo jirugi)Perform in slow motion.
  3. Move the left foot to D forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a low inward block with the left knife-hand.(Gunnun so sonkal najunde bandae anuro makgi)
  4. Move the right foot to D forming a left walking stance toward C at the same time executing a high side block to C with the right outer forearm.(Gunnun so bakat palmok nopunde bandae yop makgi)
  5. Execute a middle punch to C with the left fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward C.(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)
  6. Execute a low twisting kick to C with the right foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 16.(Najunde bituro chagi)
  1. Lower the right foot to C forming a right waling stance toward C while executing a downward block with an x-fist.(Gunnun so kyocha joomuk naeryo makgi)
  2. Execute a rising block with the left knife-hand while maintaining a right walking stance toward C.(Gunnun so sonkal bandae chookyo makgi)Perform 18 and 19 in a continuous motion.
  3. Jump to C forming a left X-stance toward BC while executing a high side strike to C with the left back fist and bringing the right finger belly to the left side fist.(Twigi, wen kyocha so dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi)
  4. Move the right foot to D, forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.(Niunja so kaunde yop jirugi)
  5. Execute a middle reverse turning kick to AD with the left foot.(kaunde bandae dollyo chagi)
  6. Lower the left foot to D in a stamping motion to form a sitting stance toward A at the same time executing a middle side strike to D with a left knife-hand.(Annun so wen sonkal kaunde yop taerigi)
  1. Execute a middle side piercing kick to D with the right foot while turning counter-clockwisepulling both hands in the opposite direction.(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)
  2. Lower the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a high crescent punch with the left fist.(Gunnun so nopunde bandae bandal jirugi)
  3. Execute a middle turning punch with the right fist while forming a parallel stance toward D pulling the left foot.
    (Narani so orun joomuk kaunde dollyo jirugi)Perform in slow motion.
  4. Move the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D at the same time executing a middle wedging block with a knife-hand.(Gunnun so sonkal kaunde hechyo makgi)

28. Execute a circular block to BD with the left reverse knife-hand while maintaining a right walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so sonkal dung dollimyo makgi)

29. Execute a downward block with an alternate palm while forming a left rear foot stance toward D pulling the right foot.

(Dwitbal so euhkallin sonbadak naeryo makgi)

30. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist while forming a left L-stance toward D slipping the right foot.

(Niunja so kaunde baro jirugi)

31. Execute a low inward block to D with the right reverse knife-hand while shifting to C maintaining a left L-stance toward D.

(Niunja so sonkal dung najunde bandae anuro makgi)

32. Move the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a middle wedging block with a knife-hand.

(Gunnun so sonkal kaunde hechyo makgi)

33. Execute a circular block to AD with the right reverse knife-hand while maintaining a left walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so sonkal dung dollimyo makgi)

34. Execute a downward block with an alternate palm while forming a right rear foot stance toward D pulling left foot.

(Dwitbal so euhkallin sonbadak naeryo makgi)

35. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while forming a right L-stance toward D slipping the left foot.

(Niunja so kaunde baro jirugi)

36. Execute a low inward block to D with the left reverse knife-hand while shifting to C maintaining a right L-stance toward D.

(Niunja so sonkal dung najunde bandae anuro makgi)

37. Execute a high reverse turning kick to BD with the right foot.

(nopunde bandae dollyo chagi)

38. Lower the right foot to D forming a left rear foot stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.

(Dwitbal so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

39. Execute a high reverse turning kick to AD with the left foot.

(Nopunde bandae dollyo chagi)

40. Lower the left foot to D forming a right rear foot stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.

(Dwitbal so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

41. Move the left foot to the side rear of the right foot and then the right foot to C forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a low outward block to D with the left knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal najunde bandae makgi)

42. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while forming a left walking stance toward D slipping the right foot.

(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)

43. Move the left foot to C forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a low block to D with the right knifehand.

(Niunja so sonkal najunde bandae makgi)

44. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist while forming a right walking stance toward D slipping the left foot.

(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)

45. Execute a high punch to D with the right fist while maintaining a right walking stance

toward D.

(Gunnun so nopunde jirugi)

END: Bring the right foot back to a ready posture

Movements: 52

Meaning: Choong-Jang is the pseudonym given to General Kim Duk Ryang who lived during the Lee Dynasty, 14th century. This pattern ends with a left- hand attack to symbolise the tragedy of his death at 27 in prison before he was able to reach full maturity.

Ready Posture: Close Ready Stance A

1. Move the right foot to A to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a side front block with the right inner forearm and extending the left forearm side-downward.

(Annun so orun anpalmok yobap makgi)

2. Execute a side front block with the left inner forearm extending the right forearm side downward while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so wen anpalmok yobap makgi)

3. Bring the right foot to the left foot forming a close stance toward D while executing an angle punch with the left fist.

(Moa so wen joomuk giokja jirugi)

Perform in slow motion.

4. Move the left foot to D to form a left walking stance toward while executing a high thrust to D with the right double finger.

(Gunnun so doo songarak nopunde bandae tulgi)

5. Move the right foot to D to form a right walking stance toward while executing a high thrust to D with the left double finger.

(Gunnun so doo songarak nopunde bandae tulgi)

6. Execute a front strike to D with the right back fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so dung joomuk ap taerigi)

7. Move the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a rising block with the left forearm.

(Gunnun so palmok chookyo makgi)

8. Move the right foot to D to form a right walking stance toward D at the same time executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.

(gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

9. Move the right foot to C turning counter clockwise and then slide to C to form a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.

(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

10. Execute a low front snap kick to D with the right foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 9.

(Najunde apcha busigi)

11. Lower the right foot to D forming a right low stance toward D while executing a high thrust to D with the right flat finger tip.

(Nachuo so opun sonkut nopunde tulgi)

12. Execute a high turning kick to D with the right foot supporting the body with both hands and the left knee.

(Nopunde dollyo chagi)

13. Lower the right foot to D and then execute a high punch to D with the right fist while pressing the ground with the left palm.

(Joomuk nopunde jirugi)

14. Move the left foot to D turning clockwise to form a left L-stance toward C while thrusting to D with the left side elbow.

(Niunja so yop palkup tulgi)

15. Move the left foot to C turning clockwise to form a left L-stance toward D at the same time executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.

(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

16. Move the right foot to C forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a scooping block with the left palm.

(Niunja so sonbadak bandae duro makgi)

17. Move the left foot to C forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle outward strike to D with the right knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde bakuro taerigi)

18. Execute a pressing block with an X-fist while forming a left walking stance toward C pivoting with the right foot.

(Gunnun so kyocha joomuk noollo makgi)

19. Execute a low front snap kick to C with the right knee while pulling both hands in the opposite direction as if grabbing the opponent’s leg.

(Moorup najunde apcha busigi)

20. Lower the right foot to C forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle

guarding block to D with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

21. Move the right foot to D in a sliding motion to form a right L-stance toward C while thrusting to D with the right side elbow.

(Niunja so yop palkup tulgi)

22. Execute a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand while forming a left L-stance toward D pivoting with the left foot.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

23. Execute a middle side piercing kick to D with the right foot while pulling both hands in the

opposite direction.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

24. Lower the right foot to D and then execute a pressing block with a twin palm while forming a right rear foot stance toward C, pivoting with the right foot.

(Dwitbal so sang sonbadak noollo makgi)

25. Move the right foot to C to form a right walking stance toward C while executing a high front block to C with the right outer forearm and then a high side strike to C with the right back fist, maintaining a right walking stance toward C.

(Gunnun so bakat palmok nopunde ap makgi, dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi)

26. Execute a high thrust to D with the left flat finger tip while forming a right L-stance toward D pivoting with the right foot.

(Niunja so opun sonkut nopunde bandae tulgi)

27. Execute a low front snap kick to D with the right foot while bring the right palm on the left back hand.

(Najunde apcha busigi)

28. Lower the right foot to D to form a left walking stance toward C pivoting with the left foot while thrusting to D with the right back elbow, placing the left side fist on the right fist.

(Gunnun so dwit palkup bandae tulgi)

Perform in slow motion.

29. Execute a downward strike with the left back hand while forming a right L-stance toward C, pivoting with the right foot.

(Niunja so sondung bandae naeryo taerigi)

Perform in a stamping motion.

30. Punch the left palm with the right fist while maintaining a right L-stance toward C.

(Niunja so kaunde baro jirugi)

31. Move the right foot to C in a stamping motion to form a left L-stance toward C while executing a downward strike with the right back hand.

(Niunja so sondung bandae naeryo taerigi)

32. Punch the right palm with the left fist while maintaining a left L-stance toward C.

(Niunja so kaunde baro jirugi)

33. Execute a middle outward strike to D with the left knife-hand while forming a right L-stance toward D, pivoting with the right foot.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde bakuro taerigi)

Perform in a stamping motion.

34. Execute a high side front strike to D with the right back fist striking the left palm with the right elbow while forming a left walking stance toward D, slipping the left foot.

(Gunnun so dung joomuk nopunde bandae yobap taerigi)

35. Move the right foot to D forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle outward strike to D with the right knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde bakuro taerigi)

Perform in a stamping motion.

36. Execute a high side front strike to D with the left back fist striking the right palm with the left elbow while forming a right walking stance toward D, slipping the right foot.

(Gunnun so dung joomuk nopunde bandae yobap taerigi)

37. Execute a low guarding block to C with a reverse knife-hand while forming a right L-stance toward C pivoting with the right foot.

(Niunja so sonkal dung najunde daebi makgi)

38. Execute a right 9-shape block while forming a left walking stance toward C slipping the left foot.

(Gunnun so bandae gutja makgi)

39. Move the right foot to C forming a left L-stance toward C while executing a low guarding block to C with a reverse knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal dung najunde daebi makgi)

40. Execute a left 9-shape block while forming a right walking stance toward C slipping the right foot.

(Gunnun so bandae gutja makgi)

41. Move the right foot to D forming a left walking stance toward C while executing a horizontal strike with a twin knife-hand.

(Gunnun so sang sonkal soopyong taerigi)

42. Execute a high strike to C with the right arc- hand while maintaining a left walking stance toward C.

(Gunnun so bandal son nopunde bandae taerigi)

43. Execute a middle front snap kick to C with the right foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 42.

(Kaunde apcha busigi)

44. Lower the right foot to C forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a high strike to C with the left arc-hand.

(Gunnun so bandal son nopunde bandae taerigi)

45. Execute a middle front snap kick to C with the left foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 44.

(Kaunde apcha busigi)

46. Lower the left foot to C forming a left walking stance toward C while executing a middle punch to C with the right fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)

47. Execute a middle punch to C with the left fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward C.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

Perform 46 and 47 in a fast motion.

48. Bring the right foot to the left foot to form a close stance toward C while executing a high crescent punch with a twin fore-knuckle fist.

(Moa so sang inji joomuk nopunde bandal jirugi)

49. Move the left foot to B turning counter- clockwise to form a left walking stance toward B while executing a low block to B with the left knife-hand.

(Gunnun so sonkal najunde makgi)

50. Execute a high punch to B with the right open fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward B.

(Gunnun so pyon joomuk nopunde bandae jirugi)

51. Move the left foot on line AB forming a right walking stance toward A while executing a low block to A with the right Knife-hand.

(Gunnun so sonkal najunde makgi)

52. Execute a high punch to A with the left open fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward A.

(Gunnun so pyon joomuk nopunde bandae jirugi)

END: Bring the left foot back to a ready posture.

Movements: 45

Meaning: Juche is a philosophical idea that man is the master of everything and decides everything, in other words, the idea that man is the master of the world and his own destiny. It is said that this idea was rooted in Baekdu Mountain, which symbolises the spirit of the Korean people. The diagram represents Baekdu Mountain.

OR

KODANG (45 Movements)

Meaning: Kodang is the Pseudonym of the patriot Cho Man Shik, who dedicated his life to the Korean Independence Movement and to the education of his people.

The 45 movements represent the last two figures of 1945, the year Korea was liberated from Japanese occupation.

Ready Posture: Parallel Stance with Twin Side Elbow

1. Move the left foot to B forming a sitting stance toward D while executing a parallel block with the inner forearm.

(Annun so anpalmok narani makgi)

2. Execute a middle hooking block to D with the right palm while standing up toward D.

(Sonbadak kaunde golcho makgi)

3. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist while forming a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so wen joomuk kaunde jirugi)

4. Pull the right reverse footsword to the left knee joint forming a left one-leg stance toward D while executing a parallel block with the outer forearm.

(Waebal so bakat palmok narani makgi)

5. Execute a middle side piercing kick to A and then a high reverse hooking kick to B consecutively with the right foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 4.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi, orun nopunde bandae dollyo gorochagi)

Perform in slow motion.6. Lower the right foot to B in a jumping motion to form a right X-stance toward F while executing a downward strike to B with the right back fist.

(Twigi, orun kyocha so dung joomuk baro naeryo taerigi)

7. Execute a middle hooking kick and then a high side piercing kick to F consecutively with the left foot while pulling both fists in front of the chest.

(Kaunde golcho chagi, wen nopunde yopcha jirugi)

8. Lower the left foot to F in a stamping motion to form a sitting stance toward B while executing a high outward cross-cut to F with the left flat finger tip.

(Annun so wen opun sonkut nopunde bakuro ghutgi)

9. Execute a right high elbow strike to BF pressing the right side fist with the left palm while forming a left walking stance toward BF.

(Gunnun so nopun palkup bandae taerigi)

10. Cross the left foot over the right foot to form a right X-stance toward B while executing a low front block to B with the left reverse knife- hand, bringing the right finger belly on the left back forearm.

(Kyocha so sonkal dung najunde bandae ap makgi)

11. Move the right foot to A forming a left L-stance toward A while executing a middle guarding block to A with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

12. Execute a mid-air strike to A with a left knife- hand while spinning counter clockwise and then land to A forming a right L-stance toward A with the left arm extended.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

13. Move the right foot to A to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a parallel block with the inner forearm.

(Annun so anpalmok narani makgi)

14. Execute a middle hooking block to D with the left palm while standing up toward D.

(Sonbadak kaunde golcho makgi)

15. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while forming a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so orun joomuk kaunde jirugi)

16. Pull the left reverse footsword to the right knee joint forming a right one-leg stance toward D while executing a parallel block with the outer forearm.

(Waebal so bakat palmok narani makgi)

17. Execute a middle side piercing kick to B and then a high reverse hooking kick to A consecutively with the left foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 16.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi, wen nopunde bandae dollyo gorochagi)

Perform in slow motion.

18. Lower the left foot to A in a jumping motion to form a left X-stance toward E while executing a downward strike to A with the left back fist.

(Twigi, wen kyocha so dung joomuk baro naeryo taerigi)

19. Execute a middle hooking kick and then a high side piercing kick to E consecutively with the right foot while pulling both fists in front of the chest.

(Kaunde golcho chagi, orun nopunde yopcha jirugi)

20. Lower the right foot to E in a stamping motion to form a sitting stance toward A while executing a high outward cross-cut to E with the right flat finger tip.

(Annun so orun opun sonkut nopunde bakuro ghutgi)

21. Execute a left high elbow strike to AE pressing the left side fist with the right palm while forming a right walking stance toward AE.

(Gunnun so nopun palkup bandae taerigi)

22. Cross the right foot over the left foot to form a left X-stance toward A while executing a low front block to A with the right reverse knife- hand, bringing the left finger belly on the right back forearm.

(Kyocha so sonkal dung najunde bandae ap makgi)

23. Move the left foot to B forming a right L-stance toward B while executing a middle guarding block to B with a knife-hand.

(niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

24. Execute a mid-air strike to B with a right knife- hand while spinning clockwise and then land to B forming a left L-stance toward B with the right arm extended.

(Sonkal twio dolmyo taerigi)

25. Execute a pick-shape kick to B with the left foot and then lower it to B forming a right rear foot stance toward B while executing a middle guarding block with the forearm.

(Gokaeng-i chagi, orun dwitbal so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

26. Bring the right foot to the left foot forming a close stance with a heaven hand toward D.

(Moa so hanulson)

Perform in slow motion.

27. Slide to C to form a left rear foot stance toward D while executing a downward thrust with the right straight elbow.

(Dwitbal so sun palkup bandae naeryo tulgi)

28. Execute a high crescent strike with the left arc-hand while forming a right walking stance toward D, slipping the right foot.

(Gunnun so bandal son nopunde bandae bandal taerigi)

29. Slide to C to form a right rear foot stance toward D while executing a downward thrust with the left straight elbow.

(Dwitbal so sun palkup bandae naeryo tulgi)

30. Execute a high crescent strike with the right arc-hand while forming a left walking stance toward D, slipping the left foot.

(Gunnun so bandal son nopunde bandae bandal taerigi)

31. Move the left foot to C forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a high inward strike to D with a twin knife-hand.

(Gunnun so sang sonkal nopunde anuro taerigi)

32. Move the right foot to C forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a downward punch with the right fist.

(Gunnun so bandae naeryo jirugi)

33. Move the left foot to the side rear of the right foot and then slide to C forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a downward block with the left outer forearm.

(Niunja so bakat palmok bandae naeryo makgi)

34. Execute a dodging reverse turning kick to D with the right foot while flying away from D and then land to C to form a left L-stance toward D at the same time executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.

(Pihamyo bandae dollyo chagi, wen niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

35. Move the right foot to the side rear of the left foot and then slide to C forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a downward block with the right outer forearm.

(Niunja so bakat palmok bandae naeryo makgi)

36. Execute a dodging reverse turning kick to D with the left foot while flying away from D and then land to C to form a right L-stance toward D at the same time executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.

(Pihamyo bandae dollyo chagi, orun niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

37. Move the right foot to D and then the left foot to D then execute a flying two direction kick (twisting kick with the left foot, side piercing with the right foot) while flying to D.

(Twimyo sangbang chagi,yop bituro chagi)

38. Land to D to form a left diagonal stance toward D while executing a rising block with a twin palm.

(Sasun so sang sonbadak chookyo makgi)

39. Slide to D forming a right rear foot stance toward C while executing a side thrust to D with the right elbow.

(Dwitbal so yop palkup tulgi)

40. Turn the face to D while forming a right bending ready stance B toward C and then execute a middle back piercing kick to D with the left foot.

(Guburyo junbi sogi B, wen kaunde dwitcha jirugi)

Perform in slow motion.

41. Lower the left foot to D in a stamping motion forming a right L-stance toward D at the same time executing a horizontal strike to D with the left back fist.

(Niunja so dung joomuk bandae soopyong taerigi)

42. Execute a high inward cross-cut to D with the right flat finger tip while forming a parallel stance toward D, pulling the right foot.

(Narani so orun opun sonkut nopunde anuro ghutgi)

43. Execute a front punch and an upset punch to D consecutively with the right fist while flying to D and then land to D forming a close stance toward D with the right fist extended.

(Twimyo orun joomuk ap jirugi, orun joomuk dwijibo jirigi)

44. Move the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a front downward strike with the left knife-hand.

(Gunnun so sonkal bandae ap naeryo taerigi)

45. Move the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)

END: Bring the right foot back to a ready posture.

Movements: 33

Meaning: SAM-IL denotes the historical date of the independence movement of Korea which began throughout the country on March 1, 1919. The 33 movements in the pattern stand for the 33 patriots who planned the movement.

Ready Posture: Close Ready Stance C

1. Slide to D forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.

(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

2. Move the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a high block to D with the right double forearm.

(Gunnun so doo palmok nopunde makgi)

3. Move the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a high side block to D with the right knife-hand and bringing the left palm on the right back forearm.

(Gunnun so sonkal nopunde bandae yop makgi)

4. Execute a middle twisting kick to A with the right foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 3.

(Kaunde bituro chagi)

5. Lower the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

6. Move the right foot on line CD to form a sitting stance toward B while executing a middle wedging block with a reverse knife-hand.

(Annun so sonkal dung kaunde hechyo makgi)

7. Execute a low thrust to C with a right upset finger tip while forming a left walking stance toward C, pivoting with the right foot.

(Gunnun so dwijibun sonkut bandae najunde tulgi)

8. Execute a high outward block to D with the right outer forearm and a low block to C with the left forearm while forming a right L-stance toward C pulling the left foot.

(Niunja so bakat palmok nopunde baro bakuro makgi wa palmok najunde bandae makgi)

9. Move the right foot to C to form a sitting stance toward A while executing a middle wedging block with a reverse knife-hand.

(Annun so sonkal dung kaunde hechyo makgi)

10. Execute a low punch to C with the right double fist while forming a left L-stance toward C, pulling the right foot.

(Niunja so doo joomuk najunde jirugi)

11. Move the left foot to C forming a left walking stance toward C while executing a high block to BC with a double arc-hand and looking through it.

(Gunnun so nopunde doo bandalson makgi)

12. Move the right foot to C forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a middle punch to C with the left fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)

13. Move the right foot on line CD to form a right L-stance toward D while executing a low punch to D with the left double fist.

(Niunja so doo joomuk najunde jirugi)

14. Move the left foot to B forming a right L-stance toward B while executing a high guarding block to B with a reverse knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal dung nopunde daebi makgi)

15. Execute a U-shape block to B while forming a left fixed stance toward B, slipping the left foot.

(Gojung so digutja makgi)

16. Execute a sweeping kick to B with the right side sole and then lower it to B forming a right fixed stance toward B while executing a U-shaped block to B.

(Yop bal badak suroh chagi, orun gojung so digutja makgi)

17. Jump and spin counter clockwise, landing on the same spot to form a left L-stance toward B while executing a middle guarding block to B with a knife-hand.

(Twigi, wen niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

18. Execute a middle side piercing kick to B with the right foot while forming a knife-hand guarding block.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

19. Lower the right foot to the left foot and then move the left foot to A forming a left walking stance toward A while striking the left palm with the right front elbow.

(Gunnun so ap palkup bandae taerigi)

20. Move the right foot to A turning counter clockwise to form a left diagonal stance toward D at the same time thrusting to C with the left back elbow supporting the left forefist with the right palm and turning the face to C.

(Sasun so dwit palkup tulgi)

21. Execute a pressing block with an X-fist while forming a right walking stance toward AD.

(Gunnun so kyocha joomuk noollo makgi)

22. Move the left foot to A in a stamping motion to form a sitting stance toward C while executing a W-shape block with the outer forearm.

(Annun so wen bakat palmok san makgi)

23. Execute a middle side piercing kick to A with the left foot while forming a forearm guarding block.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

24. Lower the left foot on line A and then execute a low guarding block to B with a knife-hand while forming a left L-stance toward B, pivoting the left foot.

(Niunja so sonkal najunde daebi makgi)

25. Move the left foot to B forming a right rear stance toward B while executing an upward block with a left palm.

(Dwitbal so sonbadak bandae ollyo makgi)

26. Move the right foot to B forming a left rear foot stance toward B while executing a pressing block with a twin palm.

(Dwitbal so sang sonbadak noollo makgi)

27. Move the left foot to C in a stamping motion to form a left walking stance toward C while executing an upset punch to C with a twin fist.

(Gunnun so sang joomuk dwijibo jirugi)

28. Move the right foot to C forming a left L-stance toward C while executing a low block to C with the right forearm, pulling the left fist under the left armpit.

(Niunja so palmok najunde bandae makgi)

29. Execute a middle punch to C with the left fist while maintaining a left L-stance toward C bringing the right fist over the left shoulder.

(Niunja so kaunde baro jirugi)

30. Execute a middle front block with the right forearm while forming a left walking stance toward D, pivoting with the right foot.

(Gunnun so palmok kaunde bandae ap makgi)

31. Execute a high punch to D with the left fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so nopunde jirugi)

Perform 30 and 31 in a continuous motion.

32. Execute a low front snap kick to D with the left foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 31.

(Gunnun so nopunde jirugi)

33. Lower the left foot to D and then move the right foot to D in a stamping motion forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a high vertical punch to D with a twin fist.

(Gunnun so sang joomuk nopunde sewo jirugi)

END: Bring the left foot back to a ready posture.

Movements: 67

Meaning: YOO-SIN is named after General Kim Yoo Sin, a commanding general during the Silla Dynasty. The 68 movements refer to the last two figures of 668 A.D., the year Korea was united. The ready posture signifies a sword drawn on the right rather than left side, symbolizing Yoo Sin’s mistake of following his Kings’ orders to fight with foreign forces against his own nation.

Ready Posture: Warrior Ready Stance B

1. Move the left foot to B to form a sitting stance toward D while extending both elbows to the sides horizontally.

(Annun sogi)

2. Execute an angle punch to C with the left fist while sliding to A, maintaining a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so wen joomuk C-bang giokja jirugi)

3. Execute an angle punch to C with the right fist while sliding to B, maintaining a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so orun joomuk C-bang giokja jirugi)

Perform 2 and 3 in a fast motion.

4. Execute a middle hooking block to D with the right palm while standing up toward D.

(Sonbadak kaunde golcho makgi)

5. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist while forming a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so wen joomuk kaunde jirugi)

6. Execute a middle hooking block to D with the left palm while standing up toward D.

(Sonbadak kaunde golcho makgi)

7. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while forming a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so orun joomuk kaunde jirugi)

8. Move the left foot to BD to form a left walking stance toward BD while executing a high side block to BD with the left outer forearm.

(Gunnun so bakat palmok nopunde yop makgi)

9. Execute a circular block to D with the right inner forearm while maintaining a left walking stance toward BD.

(Gunnun so anpalmok dollimyo makgi

10. Execute a scooping block with the left palm while forming a sitting stance toward AD.

(Annun so wen sonbadak duro makgi)

11. Execute a middle punch to AD with the right fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward

AD.

(Annun so orun joomuk kaunde jirugi)

Perform 10 and 11 in a connecting motion.

12. Bring the left foot to the right foot, and then move the right foot to AD to form a right walking stance toward AD while executing a high side block to AD with the right outer forearm.

(Gunnun so bakat palmok nopunde yop makgi)

13. Execute a circular block to D with the left inner forearm while maintaining a right walking stance toward AD.

(Gunnun so anpalmok dollimyo makgi)

14. Execute a scooping block with the right palm while forming a sitting stance toward BD.

(Annun so orun sonbadak duro makgi)

15. Execute a middle punch to BD with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward BD.

(Annun so wen joomuk kaunde jirugi)

Perform 14 and 15 in a connecting motion.

16. Execute a high hooking block to BC with the right palm while forming a left walking stance toward BC.

(Gunnun so sonbadak nopunde bandae golcho makgi)

17. Execute a middle punch to BD with the left fist while forming a sitting stance toward BD.

(Annun so wen joomuk kaunde jirugi)

18. Execute a high hooking block to AD with the left palm while forming a right walking stance toward AD.

(Gunnun so sonbadak nopunde bandae golcho makgi)

19. Execute a middle punch to BD with the right fist while forming sitting stance toward BD.

(Annun so orun joomuk kaunde jirugi)

Perform 16, 17, 18 and 19 in a continuous motion.

20. Move the right foot to C, forming a left walking stance toward D at the same time executing a pressing block with an X-fist.

(Gunnun so kyocha joomuk noollo makgi)

21. Execute a rising block with an X-knife-hand while maintaining a left walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so kyocha sonkal chookyo makgi)

Perform 20 and 21 in a continuous motion.

22. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist, slipping the left palm up to the right elbow joint while maintaining a left walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)

23. Execute a low front snap kick to D with the right foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 22.

(Najunde apcha busigi)

24. Lower the right foot to D, forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the left fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)

25. Execute a pressing block with an X-fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward D.

(gunnun so kyocha joomuk noollo makgi)

26. Execute a rising block with an X-knife-hand while maintaining a right walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so kyocha sonkal chookyo makgi)

Perform 25 and 26 in a continuous motion.

27. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist slipping the right palm up to the left elbow joint while maintaining a right walking stance toward D.

(gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)

28. Execute a low front snap kick to D with the left foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 27.

(Najunde apcha busigi)

29. Lower the left foot to D to form a left walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)

30. Move the right foot to D, forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

31. Move the left foot to D to form a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

32. Move the left foot to C, forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

33. Move the right foot to C to form a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

34. Move the right foot to D, forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a high block to D with the right double forearm.

(Gunnun so doo palmok nopunde makgi)

35. Execute a low block to D with the left forearm, keeping the right forearm as it was in 34 while maintaining a right walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so palmok najunde bandae makgi)

Perform 34 and 35 in a fast motion.

36. Move the left foot to D to form a left walking stance toward D while executing a high block to D with the left double forearm.

(Gunnun so doo palmok nopunde makgi)

37. Execute a low block to D with the right forearm, keeping the left forearm as it was in 36 while maintaining a left walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so palmok najunde bandae makgi)

Perform 36 and 37 in a fast motion.

38. Move the right foot to D, forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

39. Move the left foot on line CD, and then turn counter-clockwise, pivoting with the left foot to form a right L-stance toward C while executing a high block to C with the left reverse knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal dung nopunde yop makgi)

40. Bring the right foot to the left foot to form a close ready stance C toward C.

(Moa junbi sogi C)

41. Move the right foot to CF in a stamping motion to form a right walking stance toward CG at the same time executing an upset punch to CF with a twin fist.

(Gunnun so sang joomuk dwijibo jirugi)

42. Bring the right foot to the left foot, and then move the left foot to CE in a stamping motion, forming a left walking stance toward CE while executing an upset punch to CE with a twin fist.

(Gunnun so sang joomuk dwijibo jirugi)

43. Bring the left foot to the right foot, and then move the right foot to F to form a left L-stance toward F while executing a middle block to F with the right inner forearm.

(Niunja so anpalmok kaunde yop makgi)

44. Execute a middle punch to F with the left fist while maintaining a left L-stance toward F.

(Niunja so kaunde baro jirugi)

45. Bring the left foot to the right foot to form a close stance toward C while executing an angle punch with the right fist.

(Moa so orun joomuk giokja jirugi)

Perform in a slow motion.

46. Move the left foot to E to form a right L-stance toward E while executing a middle block to E with the left inner forearm.

(Niunja so anpalmok kaunde yop makgi)

47. Execute a middle punch to E with the right fist while maintaining a right L-stance toward E.

(Niunja so kaunde baro jirugi)

48. Bring the right foot to the left foot to form a close stance toward C while executing an angle punch with the left fist.

(Moa so wen joomuk giokja jirugi)

Perform in a slow motion.

49. Move the left foot to E to form a left fixed stance toward E while executing a U-shape punch to E.

(Gojung so digutja jirugi)

50. Bring the left foot to the right foot, and then move the right foot to E, forming a right fixed stance toward E while executing a U-shape punch to E.

(Gojung so digutja jirugi)

51. Move the right foot on line CD in a stamping motion to form a sitting stance toward E while executing a front strike to E with the right back fist.

(Annun so orun dung joomuk ap taerigi)

52. Execute a waving kick to D with the right foot, and then a high outward block to AC with the right outer forearm, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 51 while forming a sitting stance toward E.

(Doro chagi, annun so orun bakat palmok nopunde bakuro makgi)

53. Execute a waving kick to C with the left foot, and then a high front block to ED with the right outer forearm, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 52 while forming a sitting stance toward E.

(Doro chagi, annun so orun bakat palmok nopunde ap makgi)

54. Execute a horizontal strike to C with the right back hand while maintaining a sitting stance toward E.

(Annun so orun sondung soopyong taerigi)

55. Execute a middle crescent kick to the right palm with the left foot.

(Kaunde bandal chagi)

56. Execute a middle side piercing kick to C with the left foot forming a forearm guarding block.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

Perform 55 and 56 in a consecutive kick.

57. Lower the left foot to C to form a sitting stance toward B while executing a horizontal strike to C with the left back hand.

(Annun so wen sondung soopyong taerigi)

58. Execute a middle crescent kick to the left palm with the right foot.

(Kaunde bandal chagi)

59. Execute a middle side piercing kick to C with the right foot, forming a forearm guarding block.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

Perform 58 and 59 in a consecutive kick.

60. Lower the right foot to C, forming a sitting stance toward A while executing a right 9-shape block.

(Annun so orun gutja makgi)

61. Change the position of the hands while maintaining a sitting stance toward A.

(Annun sogi)

62. Move the left foot to C, turning clockwise to form a sitting stance toward B while executing a right 9-shape block.

(Annun so orun gutja makgi)

63. Change the position of the hands while maintaining a sitting stance toward B.

(Annun sogi)

64. Execute a downward strike to D with the right side fist while forming a left vertical stance toward, pulling the left foot.

(Soojik so yop joomuk bandae naeryo taerigi)

65. Move the right foot to A to form a left walking stance toward B while executing a high vertical punch to B with a twin fist.

(Gunnun so sang joomuk nopunde sewo jirugi)

66. Move the right foot to B, turning counter- clockwise to form a left walking stance toward A while executing a high vertical punch to A with a twin fist.

(Gunnun so sang joomuk nopunde sewo jirugi)

67. Bring the right foot to the left foot, and then move the left foot to BD to form a right L-stance toward BD while executing a middle guarding block to BD with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

68. Bring the left foot to the right foot, and then move the right foot to AD to form a left L-stance toward AD while executing a middle guarding block to AD with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

END: Bring the right foot back to a ready posture.

Movements: 46

Meaning: CHOI-YONG is named after General Choi Yong, premier and commander in chief of the armed forces during the 14th century Koryo Dynasty. Choi Yong was greatly respected for his loyalty,patriotism, and humility. He was executed by his subordinate commanders headed by general Yi Sung Gae, who later became the first King of the Lee Dynasty.

Ready Posture: Close Ready Stance C

1. Move the left foot to D to form a right rear foot stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.

(Dwitbal so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

2. Execute a high punch to D with the left middle knuckle fist while maintaining a right rear foot stance toward D

(Dwitbal so joongji joomuk nopunde bandae jirugi)

3. Move the left foot on line CD to form a left rear foot stance toward C while executing a middle guarding block to C with the forearm.

(Dwitbal so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

4. Execute a high punch to C with the right middle knuckle fist while maintaining a left rear foot stance toward C

(Dwitbal so joongji joomuk nopunde bandae jirugi)

5. Move the right foot on line CD to form a left walking stance toward D while executing a rising block with the left knife-hand.

(Gunnun so sonkal chookyo makgi)

6. Execute a circular block to AD with the right inner forearm while maintaining a left walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so anpalmok dollimyo makgi)

7. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

8. Move the left foot on line CD to form a right walking stance toward C while executing a rising block with the right knife-hand.

(Gunnun so sonkal chookyo makgi)

9. Execute a circular block to AC with the left inner forearm while maintaining a right walking stance toward C.

(Gunnun so anpalmok dollimyo makgi)

10. Execute a middle punch to C with the right fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward C.

(Gunnun so kaunde jirugi)

11. Move the right foot on line CD to form a right L-stance toward D while executing a low guarding block to D with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal najunde daebi makgi)

12. Execute a middle turning kick to AD with the right foot and then lower it to the side front of the left foot.

(Kaunde dollyo chagi)

13. Execute a high reverse hooking kick to D with the left foot.

(Nopunde bandae dollyo gorochagi)

14. Execute a middle side piercing kick to D with the left foot, pulling both hands in the opposite direction.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

Perform 13 and 14 in a consecutive kick.

15. Lower the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while striking the left palm with the right front elbow.

(Gunnun so ap palkup bandae taerigi)

16. Move the left foot on line CD to form a left L-stance toward C while executing a low guarding block to C with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal najunde daebi makgi)

17. Execute a middle turning kick to AC with the left foot and then lower it to the side front of the right foot.

(Kaunde dollyo chagi)

18. Execute a high reverse hooking kick to C with the right foot.

(Nopunde bandae dollyo gorochagi)

19. Execute a middle side piercing kick to C with the right foot, pulling both hands in the opposite direction.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

Perform 18 and 19 in a consecutive kick.

20. Lower the right foot to C forming a right walking stance toward C while striking the right palm with the left front elbow.

(Gunnun so ap palkup bandae taerigi)

21. Move the left foot to C to form a left walking stance toward C while executing a pressing block with the right palm.

(Gunnun so sonbadak bandae noollo makgi)

22. Move the right foot to C forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a pressing block with the left palm.

(Gunnun so sonbadak bandae noollo makgi)

Perform 21 and 22 in a fast motion.

23. Move the right foot to D and then the left foot to D, turning counter clockwise to form a left walking stance toward D while executing a W-shape block with a knife-hand.

(Gunnun so sonkal san makgi)

24. Execute a middle front snap kick to D with the right foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 23.

(Kaunde apcha busigi)

25. Lower the right foot to C forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.

(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

26. Move the right foot to D to form a right walking stance toward D while executing a W-shape block with a knife-hand.

(Gunnun so sonkal san makgi)

27. Execute a middle front snap kick to D with the left foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 26.

(Kaunde apcha busigi)

28. Lower the left foot to D forming a left L-stance toward C while executing a middle guarding block to C with the forearm.

(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

29. Move the left foot to C and the right foot to C then slide to C turning clockwise to form a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.

(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

30. Move the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a high thrust to D with the left flat fingertip.

(Gunnun so opun sonkut nopunde tulgi)

31. Move the left foot on line CD forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a high thrust to C with the right flat fingertip.

(Gunnun so opun sonkut nopunde tulgi)

32. Move the right foot to D turning clockwise to form a parallel stance toward B while executing a middle hooking block to B with the right palm.

(Narani so orun sonbadak kaunde golcho makgi)

33. Execute a middle punch to B with the left fist while maintaining a parallel stance toward B.

(Narani so wen joomuk kaunde jirugi)

34. Turn the face toward A while forming a left bending ready stance A toward A.

(Guburyo junbi sogi A)

35. Execute a middle side piercing kick to A with the right foot forming a forearm guarding block.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

36. Lower the right foot to A in a jumping motion to form a right X-stance toward AD while executing a high side strike to A with the right back fist and bringing the left finger belly to the right side fist.

(Twigi, orun kyocha so dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi)

37. Execute a high reverse hooking kick to B with the right foot.

(Nopunde bandae dollyo gorochagi)

38. Lower the right foot to B in a stamping motion to form a left L-stance toward B while executing a middle outward strike to B with the right knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde bakuro taerigi)

39. Move the left foot to D turning counter- clockwise to form a parallel stance toward A at the same time executing a middle hooking block to A with the left palm.

(Narani so wen sonbadak kaunde golcho makgi)

40. Execute a middle punch to A with the right fist while maintaining a parallel stance toward A.

(Narani so orun joomuk kaunde jirugi)

41. Turn the face to B while forming a right bending ready stance A toward B.

(Guburyo junbi sogi A)

42. Execute a middle side piercing kick to B with the left foot forming a forearm guarding block.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

43. Lower the left foot to B in a jumping motion forming a left X-stance toward BD while executing a high side strike to B with the left back fist and bringing the right finger belly to the left side fist.

(Twigi, wen kyocha so dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi)

44. Execute a high reverse hooking kick to A with the left foot.

(Nopunde bandae dollyo gorochagi)

45. Lower the left foot to A in a stamping motion to form a right L-stance toward A while executing a middle outward strike to A with the left knife- hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde bakuro taerigi)

46. Slide to A to form a right fixed stance toward A while executing a middle punch to A with the right fist.

(Gojung so kaunde yop jirugi)

END: Bring the right foot back to a ready posture.

Black Belt 4th-9th

Movements: 49

Meaning: Yon-Gae is named after a famous general during the Koguryo Dynasty, Yon Gae Somoon. The 49 movements refer to the last two figures of 649 A. D., the Year he forced the Tang Dynasty to quit Korea after destroying nearly 300,000 of their troops at Ansi Sung.

Ready Posture: Warrior Ready Stance A

  1. Slide to C to form a right L-stance toward D while executing a low guarding block to D with a reverse knife-hand.(Niunja so sonkal dung najunde daebi makgi)Perform in a circular motion.
  2. Execute a high punch to D with the right long fist while forming a left walking stance toward D pivoting with the left foot.(Gunnun so ghin joomuk nopunde bandae jirugi)Perform in slow motion.
  3. Slide to C forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)
  4. Execute a middle outward strike to D with the right knife-hand while flying to D and then land to D forming a left L-stance toward D with the right knife-hand extended to D. (niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)
  1. Shift to C maintaining a left L-stance toward D while executing a checking block to D with an X-fist.(Niunja so kyocha joomuk momchau makgi)
  2. Execute a high outward cross-cut to D with the right flat finger tip while forming a right walking stance toward D, slipping the right foot.(Gunnun so opun sonkut nopunde bakuro ghutgi)
  3. Execute a downward thrust with the right straight elbow while forming a left rear foot stance toward D, pulling the right foot.(Dwitbal so sun palkup bandae naeryo tulgi)
  4. Jump to D forming a left X-stance toward AD while executing a high side strike to D with the left back fist.(Twigi, wen kyocha so dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi)
  5. Move the right foot to C to form a left walking stance toward D while executing a low outward block to D with the right knife-hand.(Gunnun so sonkal najunde bandae bakuro makgi)
  6. Move the right foot on line AB to form a parallel stance toward D while executing a middle hooking block to D with the left palm.(Narani so wen sonbadak kaunde golcho makgi)
  1. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while maintaining a parallel stance toward D.(Narani so orun joomuk kaunde jirugi)
  2. Slide to C forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a low guarding block to D with a reverse knife-hand.(Niunja so sonkal dung najunde daebi makgi)Perform in a circular motion.
  3. Execute a high punch to D with the left long fist while forming a right walking stance toward D, pivoting with the right foot. (Gunnun so ghin joomuk nopunde bandae jirugi)Perform in slow motion.
  4. Slide to C forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)
  5. Execute a middle outward strike to D with the left knife-hand while flying to D and then land to D forming a right L-stance toward D with the left knife-hand extended to D.(Twimyo wen sonkal kaunde bakuro taerigi)
  6. Shift to C maintaining a right L-stance toward D while executing a checking block to D with an X-fist.(Niunja so kyocha joomuk momchau makgi)

17. Execute a high outward cross-cut to D with the left flat finger tip while forming a left walking stance toward D, slipping the left foot.

(Gunnun so opun sonkut nopunde bakuro ghutgi)

18. Execute a downward thrust with the left straight elbow while forming a right rear foot stance toward D, pulling the left foot.

(Dwitbal so sun palkup bandae naeryo tulgi)

19. Jump to D forming a right X-stance toward BD while executing a high side strike to D with the right back fist.

(Twigi, orun kyocha so dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi)

20. Move the left foot to C to form a right walking stance toward D while executing a low outward block to D with the left knife-hand.

(Gunnun so sonkal najunde bandae bakuro makgi)

21. Move the left foot on line AB to form a parallel stance toward D while executing a middle hooking block to D with the right palm.

(Narani so orun sonbadak kaunde golcho makgi)

22. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist while maintaining a parallel stance toward D.

(Narani so wen joomuk kaunde jirugi)

23. Move the right foot to A to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a W-shape block with the reverse knife-hand.

(Annun so sonkal dung san makgi)

24. Cross the left foot over the right foot to form a right X-stance toward D while executing a horizontal thrust with a twin elbow.

(Kyocha so sang palkup soopyong tulgi)

25. Move the right foot to A forming a sitting stance toward D while executing a checking block to D with a twin straight forearm.

(Annun so sang sun palmok momchau makgi)

26. Cross the left foot over the right foot to form a right X-stance toward D while executing an upward punch with the right fist, pulling the left side fist in front of the right shoulder.

(Kyocha so baro ollyo jirugi)

27. Execute a high reverse hooking kick to B with the right foot.

(Nopunde bandae dollyo gorochagi)

28. Lower the right foot to B and then execute a high side piercing kick to B with the left foot pulling both hands in front of the chest while turning clockwise.

(Nopunde yopcha jirugi)

29. Lower the left foot to B in a jumping motion to form a left X-stance toward BD while executing a downward strike to B with the left back fist.

(Twigi, wen kyocha so dung joomuk baro naeryo taerigi)

30. Move the left foot to B to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a W-shape block with the reverse knife-hand.

(Annun so sonkal dung san makgi)

31. Cross the right foot over the left foot to form a left X-stance toward D while executing a horizontal thrust with a twin elbow.

(Kyocha so sang palkup soopyong tulgi)

32. Move the left foot to B forming a sitting stance toward D while executing a checking block to D with a twin straight forearm.

(Annun so sang sun palmok momchau makgi)

33. Cross the right foot over the left foot to form a left X-stance toward D while executing an upward punch with the left fist, pulling the right side fist in front of the left shoulder.

(Kyocha so baro ollyo jirugi)

34. Execute a high reverse hooking kick to A with the left foot.

(Nopunde bandae dollyo gorochagi)

35. Lower the left foot to A and then execute a high side piercing kick to A with the right foot pulling both hands in front of the chest while turning counter clockwise.

(Nopunde yopcha jirugi)

36. Lower the right foot to A in a jumping motion to form a right X-stance toward AD while executing a downward strike to A with the right back fist.

(Twigi, orun kyocha so dung joomuk baro naeryo taerigi)

37. Move the left foot to C forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.

(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

38. Move the left foot to D turning counter clockwise to form a left rear foot stance toward C while executing a waist block to C with the right inner forearm.

(Dwitbal so anpalmok bandae hori makgi)

39. Move the right foot to C slightly and then the left foot to D in a stamping motion to form a right L-stance toward D while executing a high outward strike to D with the left knife- hand.

(Niunja so sonkal nopunde bakuro taerigi)

40. Shift to C maintaining a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.

(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

41. Move the right foot to D turning clockwise to form a right rear foot stance toward C while executing a waist block to C with the left inner forearm.

(Dwitbal so anpalmok bandae hori makgi)

42. Move the left foot to C slightly and then the right foot to D in a stamping motion to form a left L-stance toward D while executing a high outward strike to D with the right knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal nopunde bakuro taerigi)

43. Move the right foot to C turning counter clockwise to form a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.

(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

44. Jump to execute a mid-air kick to D with the right foot while spinning clockwise and then land to D to form a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.

(Twio dolmyo chagi, wen niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

45. Jump to execute a mid-air kick to D with the left foot while spinning counter clockwise and then land to D to form a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.

(Twio dolmyo chagi, orun niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

46. Execute a low inward block to D with the right reverse knife-hand pulling the left side fist in front of the right shoulder while forming a left walking stance toward D, slipping the right foot to C.

(Gunnun so sonkal dung najunde bandae anuro makgi)

47. Slide to C to form a left L-stance toward D while thrusting to C with the left side elbow.

(Niunja so yop palkup tulgi)

48. Execute a low inward block to D with the left reverse knife-hand pulling the right side fist in front of the left shoulder while forming a right walking stance toward D, slipping the left foot to C.

(Gunnun so sonkal dung najunde bandae anuro makgi)

49. Slide to C forming a right L-stance toward D while thrusting to C with the right side elbow.

(Niunja so yop palkup tulgi)

END: Bring the right foot back to a ready posture.

Movements: 42

Meaning: Ul- Ji is named after general Ul-Ji Moon Dok who successfully defended Korea against a Tang’s invasion force of nearly one million soldiers led by Yang Je in 612 A.D., Ul-Ji employing hit and run guerrilla tactics, was able to decimate a large percentage of the force. The diagram ( L ) represents his surname. The 42 movements represents the author’s age when he designed the pattern

Ready Posture: Parallel Stance with X-Back Hand

  1. Move the left foot to C forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a horizontal strike with twin side fists.(Gunnun so sang yop joomuk soopyong taerigi)
  2. Move the right foot to C to form a left walking stance toward D while executing a pressing block with an X-fist.(Gunnun so kyocha joomuk noollo makgi)
  3. Execute a rising block with an X-knife-hand while maintaining a left walking stance toward D.(Gunnun so kyocha sonkal chookyo makgi)Perform 2 and 3 in a continuous motion.
  4. Execute a high front strike to D with the right knife-hand bringing the left palm on the right elbow joint while maintaining a left walking stance toward D.(Gunnun so sonkal nopunde bandae ap taerigi)
  5. Move the left foot to C to form a sitting stance toward B while executing a horizontal strike to C with the left back hand.(Annun so wen sondung soopyong taerigi)
  1. Execute a middle crescent kick to the left palm with the right foot.(Kaunde bandal chagi)
  2. Lower the right foot to C, forming a sitting stance toward A while striking the left palm with the right front elbow.(Annun so orun ap palkup taerigi)
  3. Thrust to B with the left back elbow placing the right side fist on the left fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward A.(Annun so wen dwit palkup tulgi)
  4. Execute a side back strike to B with the right back fist and extending the left arm to the side-downward while maintaining a sitting stance toward A.(Annun so orun dung joomuk yopdwi taerigi)
  5. Bring the left foot to the right foot, forming a close stance toward D, at the same time thrusting with a twin side elbow.(Moa so sang yop palkup tulgi)
  6. Cross the left foot over the right foot, forming a right x-stance toward D while turning the face to A, Keeping the position of the hands as they were in 10.(Kyocha sogi)Perform in a fast motion.

12. Execute a middle side piercing kick to A with the right foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 11.

(Kaunde yopcha jirugi)

13. Lower the right foot to A, and then cross the left foot over the right foot, forming a right X-stance toward D while executing a horizontal thrust with a twin elbow.

(Kyocha so sang palkup soopyong tulgi)

14. Move the right foot to A to form the sitting stance toward D while executing a right horizontal punch to A.

(Annun so orun soopyong jirugi)

15. Execute a high front strike to D with right knife-hand, bringing the left back hand in front of the forehead while standing up toward D.

(Sonkal nopunde ap taerigi)

16. Execute a twin knife-hand block to B while forming a right L-stance toward B, pivoting with the right foot.

(Niunja so sang sonkal makgi)

17. Jump to execute a mid-air kick to B with the right foot while spinning clockwise.

(Twio dolmyo chagi)

18. Land to B forming a right walking stance toward B while executing a middle block to B with the right double forearm.

(Gunnun so doo palmok kaunde makgi)

19. Bring the left foot to the right foot to form a close ready stance B toward D.

(Moa junbi sogi B)

20. Jump to D forming a right X-stance toward BD while executing a high side strike to B with the right back fist bringing the left finger belly to the right side fist.

(Twigi, orun kyocha so dung joomuk nopunde baro yop taerigi)

21. Move the left foot to C to form a right walking stance toward D while executing a rising block with the left forearm.

(Gunnun so palmok bandae chookyo makgi)

22. Execute a middle front snap kick to D with the left foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 21.

(Kaunde apcha busigi)

23. Lower the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a high punch to D with the right fist.

(Gunnun so nopunde bandae jirugi)

24. Move the right foot to D to form a right walking stance toward D while executing a middle thrust to D with the right straight fingertip.

(Gunnun so sun sonkut kaunde tulgi)

25. Move the left foot to D turning counter- clockwise to form a sitting stance toward A while executing a high side strike to D with the left back fist.

(Annun so wen dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi)

26. Move the right foot to F turning counter- clockwise to form a right walking ready stance toward F.

(Gunnun junbi sogi)

27. Jump to execute a flying high kick to F with the right foot.

(Twimyo nopi chagi)

28. Land to F to form a right fixed stance toward F while executing a checking block to F with an

X-knife-hand.

(Dwitbal so kyocha sonkal momchau makgi)

29. Move the left foot to F forming a right L-stance toward F while executing a pressing block with an X-fist.

(Niunja so kyocha joomuk noollo makgi)

30. Execute a middle side front snap kick to F with the left foot while executing a middle wedging block with the inner forearm.

(Kaunde yobap cha busigi wa anpalmok kaunde hechyo makgi)

31. Lower the left foot to F forming a left walking stance toward F while executing a high vertical punch to F with a twin fist.

(Gunnun so sang joomuk nopunde sewo jirugi)

32. Move the right foot to F to form a right fixed stance toward F while executing a middle outward block with the right knife-hand and a middle pushing block with the left palm.

(Gojung so sonkal kaunde bakuro baro makgi wa sonbadak kaunde bandae miro makgi)

33. Slide to F forming a right L-stance toward F while executing a middle punch to F with the left fist.

(Niunja so kaunde yop jirugi)

34. Move the left foot to the side rear of the right foot and the right foot to E to form a right L-stance toward F and then jump to E maintaining a right L-stance towards F while executing a middle guarding block to F with the forearm.

(Niunja sogi, twigi, orun niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

35. Execute a middle turning kick to DF with the right foot.

(Kaunde dollyo chagi)

36. Lower the right foot to F and then execute a middle back piercing kick to F with the left foot.

(Kaunde dwitcha jirugi)

37. Lower the left foot to F to form a right L-stance toward F while executing a middle guarding block to F with the forearm.

(Niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

38. Move the left foot to E forming a left L-stance toward F while executing an upward block to F with the right palm.

(Niunja so sonbadak bandae ollyo makgi)

39. Move the right foot to E forming a right walking stance to E while executing a circular block to ED with the left inner forearm.

(Gunnun so anpalmok dollimyo makgi)

40. Execute a circular block to DE with the right inner forearm while forming a right walking stance toward DF.

(Gunnun so anpalmok dollimyo makgi)

41. Move the left foot on line EF to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the left fist.

(Annun so wen joomuk kaunde jirugi)

42. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.

(Annun so orun joomuk kaunde jirugi)

END: Bring the left foot back to a ready posture

Movements: 61

Meaning: Moon-Moo honours the 30th king of the Silla Dynasty. His body was buried near Dae Wang Am (Great King’s Rock). According to his will, the body was placed in the sea “Where my soul shall forever defend my land against the Japanese.” It is said that the Sok Gul Am (Stone Cave) was built to guard his tomb. The Sok Gul Am is a fine example of the culture of the Silla Dynasty. The 61 movements in this pattern symbolize the last two figures of 661 A.D. when Moon Moo came to the throne.

Ready Posture: Parallel Ready Stance

  1. Turn the face to B while forming a right bending ready stance A toward B. (Guburyo junbi sogi A)Perform in a slow motion.
  2. Execute a high side piercing kick to B with the left foot.(Nopunde yopcha jirugi)Perform in a slow motion.
  3. Execute a high side piercing kick to B with the left foot.(Nopunde yopcha jirugi)Perform 2 and 3 in a double kick.
  4. Lower the left foot to B to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a middle thrust to D with the right flat fingertip.(Annun so orun opun sonkut kaunde tulgi)
  1. Execute a high reverse hooking kick to B with the right foot.(Nopunde bandae dollyo gorochagi)Perform in a slow motion.
  2. Lower the right foot to B in a jumping motion to form a right X-stance toward C while executing a middle side strike to B with the right knife-hand.(Twigi, orun kyocha so sonkal kaunde yop taerigi)
  3. Move the left foot to A forming a left walking stance toward A while executing a pressing block to A with the right palm.(Gunnun so sonbadak bandae noollo makgi)
  4. Move the right foot to A to form a right walking stance toward A at the same time executing a pressing block with the left palm.(Gunnun so sonbadak bandae noollo makgi)
  5. Execute a high side block to B with the left knife-hand and a low side block to A with the right knife-hand while forming a right one- leg stance toward D, pulling the left reverse footsword to the right knee joint.(Waebal so sonkal najunde baro yop makgi wa sonkal nopunde bandae yop makgi)Perform in slow motion.
  1. Lower the left foot to the right foot and then turn the face to A while forming a left bending ready stance A toward A.(Guburyo junbi sogi A)Perform in slow motion.
  2. Execute a high side piercing kick to A with the right foot.(Nopunde yopcha jirugi)Perform in a slow motion.
  3. Execute a high side piercing kick to A with the right foot.(Nopunde yopcha jirugi)Perform 11 and 12 in a double kick.
  4. Lower the right foot to A to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a middle thrust to D with the left flat fingertip.(Annun so wen opun sonkut kaunde tulgi)
  5. Execute a high reverse hooking kick to A with the left foot.(Nopunde bandae dollyo gorochagi)Perform in a slow motion.
  1. Lower the left foot to A in a jumping motion to form a left X-stance toward C while executing a middle side strike to A with the left knife- hand.(Twigi, wen kyocha so sonkal kaunde yop taerigi)
  2. Move the right foot to B forming a right walking stance toward B while executing a pressing block to B with the left palm.(Gunnun so sonbadak bandae noollo makgi)
  3. Move the left foot to B to form a left walking stance toward B at the same time executing a pressing block with the right palm.(Gunnun so sonbadak bandae noollo makgi)
  4. Execute a high side block to A with the right knife-hand and a low side block to B with the left knife-hand while forming a left one- leg stance toward D, pulling the right reverse footsword to the left knee joint.(Waebal so sonkal najunde baro yop makgi wa sonkal nopunde bandae yop makgi)Perform in slow motion.
  5. Turn the face to C while forming a left bending ready stance B toward D.(Guburyo junbi sogi B)
  6. Execute a high back piercing kick to C with the right foot.(Nopunde dwitcha jirugi)

Perform in slow motion.

  1. Lower the right foot to C to form a left walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)
  2. Turn the face to C while forming a right bending ready stance B toward D.(Guburyo junbi sogi B)
  3. Execute a high back piercing kick to C with the left foot.(Nopunde dwitcha jirugi)Perform in slow motion.
  4. Lower the left foot to C to form a right walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the left fist.(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)
  5. Slide to C forming a right rear foot stance toward D while executing a downward block with the left palm.(Dwitbal so sonbadak bandae naeryo makgi)
  6. Execute a middle side front snap kick to D with the left foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 25.(Kaunde yobap cha busigi)
  7. Lower the left foot to D and then move the right foot to C in a stamping motion to form a sitting stance toward A while executing a middle side strike to C with the right side fist.(Annun so orun yop joomuk kaunde yop taerigi)
  1. Slide to C maintaining a sitting stance toward A while executing a scooping block with the left palm.(Annun so wen sonbadak duro makgi)
  2. Execute a middle punch to A with the right fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward A.(Annun so orun joomuk kaunde jirugi)Perform 28 and 29 in a connecting motion.
  3. Execute a low side block to D with the left knife-hand while maintaining a sitting stance toward A.(Annun so wen sonkal najunde yop makgi)
  4. Move the left foot just beyond the right foot in a quick motion while executing a middle side pushing kick to C with the right foot.(Kaunde yopcha milgi)
  5. Lower the right foot to C and then execute a high reverse turning kick to C with the left foot.(Nopunde bandae dollyo chagi)
  6. Lower the left foot to C to form a left walking stance toward C while executing a high side block to C with the left knife-hand.(Gunnun so sonkal nopunde yop makgi)
  7. Slide to D forming a left rear foot stance toward C while executing a downward block with the right palm.(Dwitbal so sonbadak bandae naeryo makgi)
  1. Execute a middle side front snap kick to C with the right foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 34.(Kaunde yobap cha busigi)
  2. Lower the right foot to C and then move the left foot to D in a stamping motion to form a sitting stance toward A while executing a middle side strike to D with the left side fist.(Annun so wen yop joomuk kaunde yop taerigi)
  3. Slide to D maintaining a sitting stance toward A while executing a scooping block with the right palm.(Annun so orun sonbadak duro makgi)
  4. Execute a middle punch to A with the left fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward A.(Annun so wen joomuk kaunde jirugi)Perform 37 and 38 in a connecting motion.
  5. Execute a low side block to C with the right knife-hand while maintaining a sitting stance toward A.(Annun so orun sonkal najunde yop makgi)
  6. Move the right foot just beyond the left foot in a quick motion while executing a middle side pushing kick to D with the left foot.(kaunde yopcha milgi)

41. Lower the left foot to D and then execute a high reverse turning kick to D with the right foot.

(Kaunde yopcha milgi)

42. Lower the right foot to D to form a right walking stance toward D while executing a high side block to D with the right knife-hand.

(Gunnun so sonkal nopunde yop makgi)

43. Move the left foot to D and then execute a high twisting kick to AD with the right foot.

(Nopunde bituro chagi)

44. Lower the right foot to C forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a side
back strike to C with the right back fist and extending the left fist to D.

(Gunnun so dung joomuk bandae yopdwi taerigi)

45. Execute a front strike to D with the right back fist while shifting to C maintaining a left walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so dung joomuk bandae ap taerigi)

46. Move the right foot to D and then execute a high twisting kick to BD with the left foot.

(Nopunde bituro chagi)

47. Lower the left foot to C to form a right walking stance toward D while executing a side back strike to C with the left back fist and extending the right fist to D.

(Gunnun so dung joomuk bandae yopdwi taerigi)

48. Execute a front strike to D with the left back fist while shifting to C maintaining a right walking stance toward D.

(Gunnun so dung joomuk bandae ap taerigi)

49. Execute a sweeping kick to D with the left side sole keeping the position of the hands as they were in 48 and then lower it to D forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.

(Yop bal badak suroh chagi)

50. Execute a side checking kick to D and then again a middle side thrusting kick to D with the left foot forming a forearm guarding block.

(Yopcha momchugi, wen kaunde yopcha tulgi)

Perform in a consecutive kick.

51. Lower the left foot to D forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle outward strike to D with the left knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde bakuro taerigi)

52. Execute a sweeping kick to D with the right side sole and then lower it to D to form a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.

(Yop bal badak suroh chagi, wen niunja so palmok kaunde daebi makgi)

  1. Execute a side checking kick to D and then again a middle side thrusting kick to D with the right foot forming a forearm guarding block.(Yopcha momchugi, orun kaunde yopcha tulgi)Perform in a consecutive kick.
  2. Lower the right foot to D forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle outward strike to D with the right knife-hand.(Niunja so sonkal kaunde bakuro taerigi)
  3. Move the right foot to C and then turn counter clockwise pivoting with the right foot to form a left walking stance toward C while executing a middle punch to C with the right fist.(Gunnun so kaunde bandae jirugi)
  4. Jump to C to form a right X-stance toward AC while executing a low punch to C with the left fist and bringing the right fist on the left shoulder.(Twigi, orun kyocha so najunde bandae jirugi)
  5. Jump to D forming a left X-stance toward AD while executing a low punch to D with the right fist and bringing the left fist on the right shoulder.(Twigi, wen kyocha so najunde bandae jirugi)
  6. Jump to execute a mid-air kick to D with the right foot while spinning clockwise.(Twio dolmyo chagi)

59. Land to D to form a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.

(Niunja so sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)

60. Move the right foot to the side rear of the left foot and then the left foot to C to form a right walking stance toward D while executing a rising block with the left arc-hand.

(Gunnun so bandal son bandae chookyo makgi)

61. Execute a high punch to D with the right fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward D.

(gunnun so nopunde jirugi)

END: Bring the right foot back to a ready posture.

Movements: 72

Meaning: So-San is the pseudonym of the great monk Choi Hyong Ung (1520-1604) during the Lee Dynasty. The 72 movements refer to his age when he organized a corps of monk soldiers with the assistance of his pupil Sa Myung Dang. The monk soldiers helped repulse the Japanese pirates who overran most of the Korean peninsula in 1592.

Ready Posture – CLOSED READY STANCE A

  1. Slide to C to form a right rear foot stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.
  2. Execute a middle vertical punch to D with the right fist while forming a left walking stance toward D, slipping the left foot.
  3. Slide to C to form a left rear foot stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.
  4. Execute a middle vertical punch to D with the left fist while forming a right walking stance toward D, slipping the right foot.
  5. Execute a high side block to BC with the right knife-hand while forming a left walking stance toward BC.
  6. Execute a middle punch to BD with the left fist while forming a sitting stance toward BD. Perform 5 and 6 in a fast motion.
  7. Execute a high side block to BD with the left knife-hand while forming a right walking stance toward BD.
  8. Execute a middle punch to BD with the right fist while forming a sitting stance toward BD. Perform 7 and 8 in a fast motion.
  9. Move the right foot to C turning clockwise to form a parallel stance toward A while executing a horizontal strike with a twin knife-hand.
  10. Execute a high side piercing kick to C with the right foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 9.
  11. Execute a high turning kick to D with the right foot. Perform 10 and 11 in a continuous kick.
  12. Lower the right foot to D in a jumping motion to form a right X-stance toward BD while executing a high side strike to D with the right back fist and bringing the left finger belly to the right side fist.
  13. Move the left foot to C forming a parallel stance toward B while executing a horizontal strike with a twin knife-hand.
  14. Execute a high side piercing kick to C with the left foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 13.
  15. Execute a high turning kick to D with the left foot. Perform 14 and 15 in a continuous kick.
  16. Lower the left foot to D in a jumping motion to form a left X-stance toward AD while executing a high side strike to D with the left back fist and bringing the right finger belly to the left side fist.
  17. Move the left foot to A forming a right L-stance toward A executing a low punch to A with a left double fist.
  18. Bring the right palm on the left fore fist and then twist them counter clockwise until the left back fist faces downward while forming a left walking stance toward A, slipping the left foot. Perform in a releasing motion.
  19. Execute a high punch to A with the right fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward A.
  20. Move the left foot on line AB to form a left L-stance toward B while executing a low punch to B with a right double fist.
  21. Bring the left palm on the right fore fist and then twist them clockwise until the right back fist faces downward while forming a right walking stance toward B, slipping the right foot. Perform in a releasing motion.
  22. Execute a high punch to B with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward B.
  23. Slide to B to form a right L-stance toward B while executing an upset punch to B with the right middle knuckle fist and bringing the left side fist in front of the right shoulder.
  24. Execute a front strike to B with the right back fist while forming a left walking stance toward B, slipping the right foot.
  25. Slide to A, turning clockwise to form a left L-stance toward A while executing an upset punch to A with the left middle knuckle fist and bringing the right side fist in front of the left shoulder.
  26. Execute a front strike to A with the left back fist while forming a right walking stance toward A, slipping the left foot.
  27. Move the left foot to D forming a right walking ready stance toward C.
  28. Jump to execute a flying front snap kick to C with the right foot.
  29. Land to C forming a left L-stance toward C while executing a middle guarding block to C with a knife-hand.
  30. Move the right foot to D to form a left walking stance toward C while executing a high front block with the right forearm.
  31. Execute a middle punch to C with the left fist while shifting to C, maintaining a left walking stance toward C.
  32. Turn clockwise, pivoting with the left foot to form a right walking stance toward D while executing a high front block with the left forearm.
  33. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while shifting to D, maintaining a right walking stance toward D.
  34. Execute a middle block to BC with a double arc-hand while forming a left walking stance toward BC and looking through the hands.
  35. Execute a high inward strike to BC with the right knife-hand and bringing the left side fist in front of the right shoulder while maintaining a left walking stance toward BC.
  36. Execute a circular block to BD with the left inner forearm while forming a right walking stance toward D.
  37. Execute a high punch to D with the right fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward D.
  38. Execute a low front snap kick to D with the left foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 37.
  39. Lower the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing amiddle punch to D with the left fist.
  40. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward D. Perform 39 and 40 in a fast motion.
  41. Execute a rising block with an X-knife-hand while maintaining a left walking stance toward D.
  42. Execute a middle block to AC with a double arc-hand while forming a right walking stance toward AC and looking through the hands.
  43. Execute a high inward strike to AC with the left knife-hand and bringing the right side fist in front of the left shoulder while maintaining a right walking stance toward AC.
  44. Execute a circular block to AD with the right inner forearm while forming a left walking stance toward D.
  45. Execute a high punch to D with the left fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward D.
  46. Execute a low front snap kick to D with the right foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 45.
  47. Lower the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.
  48. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward D. Perform 47 and 48 in a fast motion.
  49. Execute a rising block with an X-knife-hand while maintaining a right walking stance toward D.
  50. Move the left foot to D, and then slide to D, turning counter-clockwise to form a right L-stance toward C while executing a low guarding block to C with a knife-hand.
  51. Jump to C, spinning counter-clockwise to form a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.
  52. Execute a low block to D with the right knife-hand and a middle outward block to D with the left inner forearm while forming a left walking stance toward D, slipping the left foot.
  53. Execute a high punch to D with the right fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward D. Perform 52 and 53 in a continuous motion.
  54. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist while forming a right L-stance toward D, pulling the left foot.
  55. Move the right foot to D, and then slide to D, turning clockwise to form a left L-stance toward C while executing a low guarding block to C with a knife-hand.
  56. Jump to C, spinning clockwise to form a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with the forearm.
  57. Execute a low block to D with the left knife-hand and a middle outward block to D with the right inner forearm while forming a right walking stance toward D slipping the right foot.
  58. Execute a high punch to D with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward D. Perform 57 and 58 in a continuous motion.
  59. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while forming a left L-stance toward D, pulling the right foot.
  60. Move the right foot to the side rear of the left foot, and then slide to C, forming a left L-stance toward D at the same time executing a scooping block with the right palm.
  61. Shift to D, maintaining a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the left fist.
  62. Turn clockwise while forming a left bending ready stance A toward C.
  63. Execute a high side piercing kick to C with the right foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 62.
  64. Lower the right foot to C, forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a middle punch to C with the left fist.
  65. Move the right foot to D, forming a right L-stance toward C while executing a middle guarding block to C with a knife-hand.
  66. Move the left foot to the side rear of the right foot, and then slide to D, forming a right L-stance toward C while executing a scooping block with the left palm.
  67. Shift to C, maintaining a right L-stance toward C while executing a middle punch to C with the right fist.
  68. Turn counter-clockwise while forming a right bending ready stance A toward C.
  69. Execute a high side piercing kick to D with the left foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 68.
  70. Lower the left foot to D to form a left walking stance toward D at the same time executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.
  71. Move the left foot to C to form a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.
  72. Execute a high punch to D with the right fist while forming a right walking stance toward D, slipping the right foot. Perform 71 and 72 in a continuous motion.

Movements: 24

Meaning: Se-Jong is named after the greatest Korean king, Se-Jong, who invented the Korean alphabet in 1443, and was also a noted meteorologist. The diagram (Z) represents the king, while the 24 movements refer to the 24 letters of the Korean alphabet.

Ready Posture – CLOSED READY STANCE B

  1. Move the left foot to B, forming a left walking stance toward B at the same time executing a low block to B with the left forearm.
  2. Bring the left foot to the right foot, and then move the right foot to A to form a left L-stance toward A while executing a twin forearm block.
  3. Execute a middle side piercing kick to D with the right foot.
  4. Lower the right foot to D, and then move the left foot to F to form a left walking stance toward F while executing a rising block with the left forearm.
  5. Bring the left foot to the right foot, and then move the right foot to E to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a middle strike to E with the right knife-hand.
  6. Bring the right foot to the left foot, forming a closed ready stance B toward D.
  7. Jump to D to form a left X-stance toward DG while executing a high side strike to D with the left back fist, bringing the right finger belly to the left side fist.
  8. Move the right foot to G, forming a right walking stance toward G while executing a high punch to G with the right fist.
  9. Move the right foot on line GH to form a left fixed stance toward H while executing a high guarding block to H with the forearm.
  10. Move the right foot to H, forming a right walking stance toward H while executing a middle thrust to H with the right straight finger tip.
  11. Bring the right foot to the left foot, and then move the left foot to G to form a left walking stance toward G while executing a high side strike to G with the left back fist.
  12. Move the left foot on line GH to form a sitting stance toward C while executing a scooping block with the left palm.
  13. Execute a middle turning kick to C with the left foot.
  14. Lower the left foot to C in a jumping motion, forming a left X-stance toward CF while executing a high block to C with the left double forearm.
  15. Move the right foot to F to form a sitting stance toward C while extending the right fist horizontally to C. Perform in a slow motion.
  16. Execute a front strike to C with the left back fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward C.
  17. Bring the right foot behind the left foot, and then move the left foot to E, forming a left diagonal stance toward C while executing a pressing block with a twin palm.
  18. Execute a middle block to C with a double arc-hand while forming a left walking stance toward CE.
  19. Pull the left reverse footsword to the right knee joint to form a right one-leg stance toward C at the same time executing a high side block to F with the right outer forearm and a low side block to E with the left forearm.
  20. Lower the left foot to D forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a pressing block with the right palm. Perform in a slow motion.
  21. Pull the left instep to the hollow of the right leg to form a right one-leg stance toward C while striking the left palm with the right back forearm.
  22. Lower the left foot to C, turning clockwise to form a right fixed stance toward D while thrusting to C with the left side elbow.
  23. Move the right foot to A, forming a left L-stance toward A while executing a high guarding block to A with a knife-hand.
  24. Bring the right foot to the left foot, and then move the left foot to B to form a right L-stance toward B while executing a middle punch to B with the right fist.

END: Bring the left foot back to a ready posture.

Movements: 56

Meaning: Tong-Il denotes the resolution of the unification of Korea, which has been divided since 1945. The diagram (I) symbolises the homogenous race.

Ready Posture – PARALLEL STANCE WITH AN OVERLAPPED BACK HAND

  1. Move the right foot to C to form a left walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with a twin fist. Perform in slow motion.
  2. Move the left foot to C to form a right walking stance toward D while executing a horizontal strike with a twin knife-hand. Perform in slow motion.
  3. Move the left foot to D, forming a right rear foot stance toward D while executing a middle inward block to D with the left outer forearm.
  4. Execute a low inward block to D with the right palm while forming a left walking stance toward D, slipping the right foot, and bringing the left side fist in front of the right shoulder.
  5. Move the right foot to D, forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.
  6. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist while maintaining a left L-stance toward D. Perform 5 and 6 in a fast motion.
  7. Move the left foot to Din a stamping motion to form a right L-stance toward D while executing a high outward strike to D with the left back hand.
  8. Execute an inward vertical kick to the left palm with the right reverse footsword.
  9. Lower the right foot to D in a stamping motion, forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a high outward strike to D with the right back hand.
  10. Execute an inward vertical kick to the right palm with the left reverse footsword.
  11. Lower the left foot to D, and then execute a horizontal block with a twin palm while forming a right L-stance toward D, slipping the left foot. Perform in a slow motion.
  12. Move the right foot to D, forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a high side block to D with the right reverse knife-hand. Perform in a slow motion.
  13. Execute a middle side block to D with the left reverse knife-hand while maintaining a right walking stance toward D. Perform in a slow motion.
  14. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward D.
  15. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward D.Perform 14 and 15 in a fast motion.
  16. Execute a downward kick to AC with the right foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 15.
  17. Lower the right foot to C in a stamping motion, forming a left L-stance toward C while executing a downward strike to C with the right back fist.
  18. Execute an outward vertical kick to BC with the left foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 17.
  19. Lower the left foot to C in a stamping motion to form a right L-stance toward C while executing a downward strike to C with the left back fist.
  20. Execute a high punch to D with the left fist while forming a right walking stance toward D, pivoting with the left foot.
  21. Execute a high punch to D with the right fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward D. Perform 20 and 21 in a fast motion.
  22. Move the left foot to D, forming a right rear foot stance toward D while executing an upward block with the left bow wrist.
  23. Move the right foot to D to form a left rear foot stance toward D while executing an upward block with the right bow wrist.
  24. Move the left foot to C, forming a left walking stance toward C while executing a pressing block with the left palm.
  25. Move the right foot to C to form a right walking stance toward C while executing a pressing block with the right palm. Perform 24 and 25 in a normal motion.
  26. Bring the left foot to the right foot to form a closed stance toward C while bringing both back hands in front of the lower abdomen in a circular motion, hitting the left palm with the right knife-hand.
  27. Move the left foot to D, forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a rising block with the left knife-hand.
  28. Execute a high punch to D with the right fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward D.
  29. Slide to D to form a left L-stance toward D while executing an upset punch to D with the left fist, bringing the right side fist in front of the left shoulder.
  30. Move the right foot to C, forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a high thrust with the right angle fingertip.
  31. Move the left foot on line CD to form a right walking stance toward C while executing a rising block with the right knife-hand.
  32. Execute a high punch to C with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward C.
  33. Slide to C to form a right L-stance toward C while executing an upset punch to C with the right fist, bringing the left side fist in front of the right shoulder.
  34. Move the left foot to D, forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a high thrust with the left angle fingertip.
  35. Execute a low guarding block to C with a reverse knife-hand in a circular motion while forming a left L-stance toward C, pivoting with the left foot.
  36. Execute a low guarding block to D with a reverse knife-hand in a circular motion while forming a right L-stance toward D, pivoting with the right foot.
  37. Execute a low block to D with the right forearm and a middle outward block to D with the left knife-hand while forming a left walking stance toward D, slipping the left foot.
  38. Move the right foot to D in a stamping motion to form a right walking stance toward D at the same time executing a high vertical punch to D with a twin fist.
  39. Pull the right reverse footsword to the left knee joint, forming a left one-leg stance toward D while striking the left palm with the right back forearm.
  40. Execute a middle back piercing kick to C with the right foot, pulling both hands in the opposite direction.
  41. Lower the right foot to C to form a sitting stance toward A while executing a W-shape block with the outer forearm.
  42. Slide to C maintaining a sitting stance toward A while executing a W-shape block with the outer forearm.
  43. Move the right foot to D in a stamping motion, turning counter clockwise to form a sitting stance toward B while executing a W-shape block with the outer forearm.
  44. Slide to C, maintaining a sitting stance toward B while executing a W-shape block with the outer forearm.
  45. Pull the left reverse footsword to the right knee joint, forming a right one-leg stance toward C while striking the right palm with the left back forearm.
  46. Execute a high back piercing kick to D with the left foot, pulling both hands in the opposite direction.
  47. Lower the left foot to C in a jumping motion, forming a left X-stance toward C while executing a pressing block with an X-fist.
  48. Move the right foot to D, forming a left walking stance toward C while executing a front strike with the left under fist.
  49. Move the right foot to C to form a right walking stance toward C while executing a front strike with the right under fist.
  50. Execute a middle pushing block to C with the left palm while maintaining a right walking stance toward C.
  51. Execute a circular block to A with the right knife-hand while forming a left walking stance toward AD.
  52. Move the left foot to C to form a left walking stance toward C while executing a middle pushing block to C with the right palm.
  53. Execute a circular block to B with the left knife-hand while forming a right walking stance toward BD.
  54. Execute a high side piercing kick to D with the right foot, forming a forearm guarding block, and then lower it to the left foot to form a closed stance toward D while executing a twin side back elbow thrust.
  55. Move the left foot to D, forming a sitting stance toward A while executing a middle side punch to D with the left fist.
  56. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while forming a left walking stance toward D, pivoting with the left foot.

END: Bring the right foot back to a ready posture.

Patterns: Detailed History

Please note, you are not required to learn this material, but you may be interested in finding out more about TaekwonDo patterns.

Chon-Ji

 

Chon Ji has 19 movements diagrammed as a cross (or plus sign). Literally, Chon-Ji translates as “heaven – earth” which is interpreted as the creation of the world. It is therefore the initial pattern performed by an ITF beginner during their entrance into the world of Taekwon-Do.

When the two words Chon Ji are combined, they take on a different meaning: Lake Chon-Ji is the Heavenly Lake, located in a crater on Paektu-San (White Headed Mountain) located on the border between China and North Korea, which was the first residency of the legendary Dan-Gun before he established his capital at Asadal (now Pyongyang) in 2333 B.C.E.

The pattern Chon-Ji is appropriately named because the word creation implies a starting point.  Consistent with this name, the pattern establishes a foundation for the martial art Taekwon-Do.  The pattern consists of two similar parts: one part representing heaven and the other the earth.

The stances and techniques performed as part of the pattern comprise the basic movements required for correct mastery of all 24 patterns.

The serious student appreciates that just as the universe is far more intricate than it may appear, the apparent simplicity of the pattern Chon-Ji masks its true complexity.  This pattern holds many hidden lessons that may not be completely realised even after years of dedicated study.

Dan-Gun

This pattern was named after the legendary holy Dan Gun, who is said to have founded Korea in 2334 BC.Like most oriental countries, Korea has a legend about the origins of their people. Korea’s legend is about their descent from Dan Gun and this is still taught today to Korean school children. The legend itself goes something like this…When heaven and earth were one and when animals could speak like humans, the God Hwanin sent his son Hwang-Ung to the East to build a new country (Hwang-Ung settled in what is now called North Korea, at the highest point on the peninsula), this was in the 25th reign of the Yao Emperor in China (approximately 2333 B.C.).

One day a tiger and a bear appeared in front of Hwang-Ung and asked that they be made into human form. After great thought Hwang-Ung informed the animals that their wish could be granted, but it would be difficult and take much patience. The animals agreed that they would do whatever it took to become human.

Hwang-Ung gave the tiger and the bear 20 garlic cloves and some mugworts. They were told to eat them, stay in a cave and pray earnestly for 100 days.

After 20 days the tiger became hungry and could no longer continue, so he left the cave in search of food. But when the 100 days were almost at an end, the bear began to lose its fur and its rear feet began to change, until at the end of the 100th day the bear had fully transformed into a beautiful woman. She became known as Ung-Yo, which means “the girl incarnated from a bear”.

Hwang-Ung then married Ung-Yo, and she gave birth to a son, who was named Dan-Gun. This child gave rise to the first Korean Dynasty.

Dan Gun is said to have built the first altar on Kang-Wha Island in 2265 B.C. This altar today is atop the island’s highest peak, Muni-San, and is known as Dan-Gun’s Altar. Dan-Gun lived with his wife, Pi So-Ap, and his sons, who are said to have built the fortress of Sam- Nang at Chung-Dung Island.

In 1122 the uncle of the Shang King of China, Ki-Ja, escaped the overthrow Shang Dynasty and migrated to Korea with 5000 followers. According to the legend, after reigning for 1,211 years, Dan-Gun fled from the Ki-Ja forces to the town of Mun-Wha, resumed his spirit form, and disappeared from the earth. The shrine to the “Trinity” in Mun-Wha today contains his 410-foot circumference “grave.” The Ki-Ja assumed the rule of Korea from 1122 B.C. to 193 B.C., teaching the people Chinese culture in the form of letters, reading, writing, medicine, and art.

The date October 3rd is celebrated in Korea as a national holiday, commemorating the founding father, Dan Gun. In 1909, the legend of Dan-Gun increased in popularity in the form of the Tae-Jong-Gyo, or Great Dan-Gun Teaching. As a spiritual figure, Dan-Gun is still worshipped today as the first ancestor of the Korean people, and remains in the people’s minds the firm spiritual root of the Korean nation.

Do-San

Ahn Chang-Ho was committed to preserving Korea’s educational system during the Japanese occupation. He was well known for his sincerity and lack of pretence in dealing with others. He was a farmer’s son. He abandoned traditional learning in his home town, Pyongyang, and studied for two years at a missionary school operated by the Salvation Army. He became a Christian and felt he couldn’t hate the Japanese as men. He decided to seek a source of national strength and cultivate it to regain national independence and prosperity.In 1894, at the age of 18, Ahn became a member of the Tongnip Hyophoe “Independence Association,” which promoted independence from Japan and worked to reform domestic affairs and reduce dependence upon foreign countries. But the group’s activities were interrupted by the conservative ruling class, so, Chai-pil, leader of the group, went into exile in the United States. This strengthened Ahn’s belief that Koreans themselves were to blame their failures and thus victory must come from within. He returned to his home town and established the Chomjin School, which was the first private modern school established in Korea.

Among the first Koreans to emigrate to United States in 1902 were Ahn Chang-Ho and Rhee Syngman, who was later to become the first president of the Republic of Korea. Once in the United States, Ahn established groups within the Korean community in support of the independence of the Korean people. In 1903, Ahn organized a fraternity that became the Kungminhoe (Korean National Association), which inspired Korean immigrants toward a movement for national independence. The group published a newspaper called “Kongnip Shinmun.”

Upon learning of the Japanese protectorate treaty enforced on Korea in 1906 following the Russo-Japanese war, Ahn returned home in 1907. He organized an underground independence group in Pyong–An Province called Shinmin-Hoe (New Peoples’ Association). The Shinmin-Hoe was associated with Protestant organizations and was dedicated to promoting the recovery of Korean independence through the cultivation and emergence of nationalism in education, business, and culture.

In 1908 the Shinmin-Hoe established the Tae-Song (large achievement) School in Pyongyang to provide Korean youth with an education based on national spirit. He ran a ceramic kiln to raise funds for the publications of books for young people. However, the political environment of the time was not conducive to the founding of such a school; the Japanese were in the process of actively banning education for Koreans. By denying the Korean children proper schooling, the Japanese wanted to ensure their illiteracy, thus essentially creating a class of slave workers.

Together with Yi Kap, Yang Ki-tak, and Shin Chae-Ho, he embarked on a lecture tour throughout the nation, warning of a national crisis incurred by the Japanese and urged the public to unite to resist the Japanese. Ahn repeatedly told Japanese leaders that Japan would profit much by keeping Korea as a friend rather than annexing Koreans and inviting their resentment.

By 1910 the Shinmin-Hoe had around 300 members and represented a threat to the Japanese occupation. The Japanese were actively crushing these types of organizations, and the Shinmin-Hoe quickly became a target of their efforts. In December of 1910 the Japanese governor general, Terauchi, was scheduled to attend the dedicating ceremony for the new railway bridge over the Amnok River. The Japanese used this situation to pretend to uncover a plot to assassinate Terauchi on the way to this ceremony. All of the Shinmin-Hoe leaders and 600 innocent Christians were arrested. Under severe torture, which led to the deaths of many, 105 Koreans were indicted and brought to trial. During the trial, the defendants were adamant about their innocence. The world community felt that the alleged plot was such an obvious fabrication that political pressure grew, and most of the defendants had to be set free. By 1913, only six of the original defendants had received prison sentences.

By this time, the Japanese had become fairly successful at detecting and destroying underground resistance groups. However, they were not successful in quelling the desire for freedom and self-government among the Korean people. The resistance groups moved further underground and guerrilla raids from the independence groups in Manchuria and Siberia increased.

The Japanese stepped up their assault on the Korean school system and other nationalistic movements. After the passage of an Education Act in 1911 the Japanese began to close all Korean schools. In 1913, the Tae- Song School was forced to close, and, by 1914, virtually all Korean schools had been shut down. This all but completed the Japanese campaign of cultural genocide. Chances of any part of the Korean culture surviving rested in the hands of the few dedicated patriots working in exile outside of Korea.

When Japanese governor-general Hirobumi Itoho was assassinated by Ahn Choong-gun (1879 – 1910), an independence fighter, Japan tightened its grip on Korean leaders. Finally Ahn exiled himself to Manchuria, then traveled to Siberia, Russia, Europe, and finally to the United States, along with Rhee Syngman. Rhee organized the Tongjihoe (Comrade Society) in Honolulu. In 1912, Ahn was elected chairman of the Korean National People’s Association, which emerged as the supreme organization for Koreans abroad and played an active role in negotiations with the U.S. government. During this time, he established Hungsadan, a secret voluntary group of ardent patriots.

Through these and other organizations an attempt was made to pressure President Woodrow Wilson into speaking in behalf of Korean autonomy at the Paris peace talks. Finally, in 1918, a representative of the Korean exiles was sent to these peace talks.

In 1919, when the Yi Dynasty was forcefully absorbed into the Japanese Empire, Ahn started underground activities that focused on regaining Korean independence. He returned to Shanghai in April 1919 along with Rhee Syngman and Kim Ku, where and became acting premier of a provisional government. They drew up a Democratic Constitution that provided for a freely elected president and legislature. This document also established the freedom of the press, speech, religion, and assembly. An independent judiciary was established and the previous class system of nobility was abolished. After trying in vain to narrow the differences of opinion between the leaders in Shanghai, he resigned from the post after two years.

Finally, on March 1, 1919, the provisional government declared its independence from Japan and called for general resistance from the Korean population. During the resistance demonstrations the Japanese police opened fire on the unarmed Korean crowds, killing thousands. Many thousand more were arrested and tortured.

Even after the Korean Declaration of Independence, Ahn Chang-Ho continued his efforts in the United States on behalf of his homeland. Ahn wanted to establish an ideal village for wandering Korean refugees in Manchuria and visited them in the 1920s. In 1922, he headed a historical commission to compile all materials related to Korea, especially the facts concerning the Japanese occupation.

After a bombing incident launched by Yun Pong-gil, he was arrested by the Japanese, though he was not involved in the incident. His 23-year-long fight for national independence abroad ended with his imprisonment in Taejon in 1932. After a brief release from the prison, he was arrested again by the Japanese police. With failing health, he left the prison on bail only to die in a Seoul hospital on 10 March 1938.

Ahn was also the father of Hollywood actor Philip Ahn, well-known for his portrayal as Master Kan in the David Carradine television series Kung Fu.

Won-Hyo

Won-Hyo (617-686 AD) was the noted Buddhist monk who introduced Buddhism into the Silla Dynasty in 686 AD. Won-Hyo was born in northern Kyongsang Province and was said to be wise from birth. As legend has it, he was born in a forest in a Chestnut Valley under a Sal tree. The Sal tree is significant, as reference to it is usually only found in the legends of very revered figures.The official name of Won-Hyo, given to him at birth, was Sol Sedang. He derived the pen name Won-Hyo (meaning dawn) from his nickname “Sedak,” which had the same meaning. He assumed this pen name in later years after he had become more accomplished as a Buddhist philosopher and poet.

Won-Hyo began his career at the age of 20 when he decided to enter the Buddhist priesthood and converted his own home into a temple. However, Buddhism was not a popular religion in Silla at that time. Although this religion had been introduced into the kingdom of Koguryo in 372 AD and Paekche in 384 AD, the general population of Silla was reluctant to accept it.

However, this religious isolation was to change during the 7th century. At that time, Silla was at war with the kingdoms of Packche and Koguryo and was under constant invasion from Paekche. In 642 AD, it lost 40 castles to Packche attacks, including the great castle of Taeya near the capital of Silla. This atmosphere dramatically influenced the Buddhist faith of all three kingdoms. Religion became more nationalistic, which tended to intensify the ferocity of the conflicts.

To accelerate the development of this type of national spirit in Silla, King Pop-Hung wanted to officially recognize Buddhism in 527 A.D. He tried to establish it as an official state religion in the area around Kyongju. The attempt was met with strong opposition by members of the court. In 528 AD, these members of the court pressured the King into agreeing to the execution of a 22 year old monk named Ichadon to convince them that Buddhism was worthwhile religion. Ichadon’s death for his belief in Buddhism resulted in stories of his blood at the execution being white as milk. These stories made him a martyr so the King issued a royal mandate that granted freedom of Buddhist belief. Shortly afterward, Buddhism was accepted by the people. In later years, King Hun-Duk named Ichadon as one of the ten sacred monks of Silla. The study of Buddhism during the reign of King Pop-Hung required the ability to read and write Chinese, so serious study was still confined mainly to monks and the aristocratic population.

Unfortunately, not many places were open for a serious Buddhist student to study in Silla. Therefore, in 650 AD, Won-Hyo and the noted monk Ui-Sang, like other monks of the time, set out to study Buddhism in China. The overland journey took them to Liaotung in Koguryo. Mistaken as spies along the way by several Koguryo sentries, they barely escaped captivity and were able to return to Silla. There is no further record of Won-Hyo travelling to China to study, although one more attempt was made shortly after Packche was defeated in 660 AD by Silla and Tang troops from China. However, such study was not necessary because wisdom was Won-Hyo’s from birth and he did not need a teacher. Therefore, he became the only monk of his time who did not study in China.

The many monks who did study in China had a broad impact on the religious culture of the Korean peninsula. In fact, there were at least five main sects of Buddhism being practiced in Silla during this period: Kyeyul, Yulban, Chinpyo, Popsong, and Hwaom. Chinpyo and Popsong were introduced by Won-Hyo with Popsong, being based upon Hwajong-non (Treatise on the Harmonious Understanding of the Ten Doctrines) from which Won-Hyo’s posthumous title of “Hwajong Kuksa” was derived. Won-Hyo was, in fact, the most influential of the many monks of the 7th century. He used his power in an attempt to unify the five existing sects and reduce their constant sectarian rivalries.

Won-Hyo is also considered to be one of the most prolific writers in all of the Buddhist countries of his time, his works include over 100 different kinds of literature consisting of about 240 volumes. Unfortunately, only 20 works within a total of 25 volumes have survived. One of the forms he chose to use was a special Silla poetic form, Hyang-Ga, These poems were mainly written by monks or members of the Hwarang and concerned patriotism, Buddhism, and praise of the illustrious dead. Won-Hyo’s poem “Hwaorm-Ga” is said to be among the most admired of these poems.

Won-Hyo’s writing was not the only area in which he gained recognition. He was well-known both to the general population and to the members of the royal family and their court. He was often asked to conduct services, recite prayers, and give sermons at the royal court. In 660 AD, King Muyo became so interested in Won-Hyo that he asked him to come and live in the royal palace of Yosok. A relationship with the royal princess Kwa developed and was soon followed by their marriage and the birth of their son Sol-Chong.

Shortly after his son was born, Won-Hyo left the palace and began travelling the country. He was recognized as a great scholar by the Dang Dynasty of China, although he never studied there, and he was highly respected by the people of Korea. He hated that different religions argued with each other over their different beliefs, so he created his own ideology in which the conflicts between various religions could be reconciled. In 661 AD, he experienced a revelation in his Buddhist philosophy and developed the Chongto-Gyo (Pure Land) sect. This sect did not require study of the Chinese Buddhist literature for salvation, but merely diligent prayer. His belief was that one could obtain salvation, or enter the “Pure Land”, by simply praying. This fundamental change in Buddhist philosophy made religion accessible to the lower classes. It soon became very popular among the entire population. However, his most remarkable achievements were his efforts in relieving the poverty and suffering of ordinary people. In 662 AD, Won-Hyo left the priesthood and devoted the rest of his life to travelling the country teaching this new sect to the common people. Won-Hyo’s contributions to the culture and national awareness of Silla were instrumental in the unification of the three kingdoms of Korea.

Won-Hyo died in 686 AD and was laid in state by his son Sol-Chong in Punhwang-Sa temple. He had seen the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea in his own lifetime and had helped to bring about a brilliant culture in Korea through his efforts in Buddhist philosophy. He had a profound influence on quality of life in Silla and on Buddhism in Korea, China, and Japan.

 

Yul-Gok

 

Yul Gok is the pseudonym of the great philosopher and scholar Yi I (1536-1584) nicknamed the “Confucius of Korea”. The 38 movements of this pattern refer to his birthplace on the 38 degree latitude and the diagram represents a “scholar”.

Yi I was born in Pukp’yong Village, Kangnung, Kangwon Province, on December 26, 1536. Yul-Gok became his pen name and he grew into a Confucian scholar, revered as the ‘Greatest Teacher in the East.’

By the age of seven, Yul-Gok had finished his lessons in the Confucian Classics. He became a chinsa (title conferred on scholars who passed the civil service examination in the literary department) at the age of 13.

In winter of that year he passed another civil service examination called Pyolsi with the highest marks. His excellent thesis on the subject of Ch’ondoch’aek struck all the examiners with great admiration. The thesis written by Yi I was a literary masterpiece interwoven with erudite knowledge of history and Confucian philosophy of politics, also reflecting his profound knowledge of Taoism, especially the philosophy of Chuang-tzu. It was when he turned 29 years of age that Yi I passed the higher civil service examination, and his government service started in that year.

His mother’s death when he was 36 years old brought him deep sorrow. Many arguments arise on the question of Yul-Gok’s temporary renunciation of the world by secluding himself on the Diamond Mountains. He may have thought after three years of lamentation that the Buddhist phrase, “life is transient,” would ease his sorrow. He may have understood that the Confucian teaching, “Preserve your mind and nurture your nature,” was synonymous with the Buddhist teaching, “Open your mind and see your nature.” Finally, he may have regarded it as a pleasure simply to rest in the countryside, as it is said that a gentleman is fond of enjoying mountains and rivers.

Yul-Gok, at age 34, authored ‘Tongho Mundap,’ an eleven article treatise devoted to clarifying his conviction that righteous government could be realized even in his days, showing measures to achieve it and his aspirations for it. In September of the year he turned 40 years of age, he authored ‘Sohak Chibyo’ (The Essentials of Confucianism), which can be rated as a most valuable book showing examples for a good Confucian life. The Yul-Gok Chonjip (The Complete Works of Yul-Gok) was compiled after his death on the basis of the writings he bequeathed.

Joon-Gun

Pattern was named for An Joong-Gun. Very little is recorded about An Joong-Gun’s life. He only appears in Korean history briefly, but he was one of Korea’s most revered patriots.An Joong-Gun was born in 1879 in the town of Hae-Ju in Hwang-Hae Province. An’s family moved to the town of Sin-Chun in Pyong-An Province when he was about ten. He became a well known teacher and established his own school called the Sam-Heung (Three Success) School. His school, like others at that time, was destined for hardships under the Japanese military occupation of Korea and became enmeshed in a Japanese power play by virtue of its location.

In 1895, the Japanese government was determined to create a large empire that would include Manchuria and China. Korea was obviously necessary as a stepping stone for creating this empire. However, the Korean government the time was under the indirect control of the Russian government. The pressure created by this political situation caused considerable unrest in Korea. Rising tension resulted in several meetings from 1896 to l898 among neighbouring countries as well as foreign powers concerned about Korea’s future. These meetings, which included Japan, China, Russia, England, and the United States, resolved very little.

Korea was pulled further into the conflicts when turmoil erupted in China in 1900. Chinese patriots, fed up with colonial domination of their country by foreign powers, incited the Chinese population to a wave of violent riots known as the Boxer Rebellion. In response to this rebellion, the colonial powers descended upon the region in force to protect their interests. Prompted by the movement of Russian army units into neighbouring Manchuria, England established an Anglo-Japanese Alliance in 1902. A Russian French Alliance was subsequently established in 1903 followed by a movement of French and Russian in into northern Korea. Meanwhile, the Japanese saw this action as a direct threat to their claim of Korea and demanded the removal of all Russian troops from Korea. When Russia rejected in 1904, Japan initiated a naval attack. Korea, of course, claimed neutrality but was invaded nonetheless by Japan. By the autumn of 1905, Russia surrendered and Japan was firmly established in Korea. However, this invasion was not viewed as an act of aggression anywhere in the world, except in Korea.

The long-term occupation of Korea also involved the complex takeover of the Korean government. One of Japan’s leading elder statesmen of the time, Hirobumi Ito, became involved in masterminding a plan to complete the occupation and political takeover of Korea. He was named the first Japanese resident general of Korea in 1905. He was answerable only to the Japanese emperor and had the power to control all the Korean foreign relations and trade. To fulfil his duties and to keep order in the country, he was given total access to all Japanese combat troops stationed in Korea.

While still in Japan, Ito pressured the weak Korean government into signing the “Protectorate Treat” on November 19, 1905, which gave the Japanese the right to occupy Korea. After signing the treaty as resident general, Ito made every effort to keep it a secret from the Korean people. Following the ratification of the treaty, twelve Japanese commissioners were assigned to the various provinces in Korea, with one being stationed in Seoul. Later, in March 1906, Ito arrived in Korea to take the reins of power. At this time, he ordered all foreign delegations in Korea to withdraw, leaving Korea at the mercy of the Japanese. The new Japanese puppet government enacted laws that allowed Korean land to be sold to Japanese, although land generally was just taken.

The Korean people were extremely irritated under these grim circumstances. Word soon leaked out concerning the Protectorate Treaty, provoking a wave of anti-Japanese violence. Several small guerrilla groups were formed and attacked the Japanese occupation forces. One such group in Chung Chong Province armed themselves with 50 cannons and conducted a long campaign of hit-and-run actions against the Japanese. They were finally defeated, as most other groups were when hunted down by the much larger Japanese army. The general wave of unrest continued to spread very rapidly. Violence pervaded the general population, as many loyal Korean government officials committed suicide and Korean government officials who had signed the Protectorate Treaty were assassinated.

In the face of the oppression that accompanied this Japanese annexation of Korea, An Joong-Gun went into self-exile in southern Manchuria. There he formed a small private guerrilla army of approximately 300 men, including his brother. This army conducted sporadic raids across the Manchurian border into northern Korea, keeping a relentless pressure on the Japanese in this region.

The violent objection of the Korean population spread out of the country as well as into the upper levels of the Korean government. The Japanese government was unnerved by the vocal, patriotic Korean organizations, particularly those that had formed within the United States.

In June of 1907, the Korean emperor, Ko-Jong, in an effort to break loose of the Japanese control, secretly sent an emissary to the Hague Peace Conference to expose the Japanese aggressive policy in Korea to the world. When Ito found out, he forced Ko-Jong to abdicate the Korean throne on July 19, 1907, and the Japanese officially took over the Government of Korea. Severe rioting involving many Korean Army units broke out all over Korea. The Japanese responded by disbanding the Korean police force and the army, except for the palace guard. The Korean Army troops then retaliated by attacking the Japanese troops, but were quickly defeated. All Korean prisons, courts, and police units were officially turned over to the Japanese government.

Even after the defeat of the Korean troops, resistance from the general Korean public continued for many years with many guerrilla groups operating out of south-eastern Manchuria. Small groups of patriots attempted assassinating several Japanese leaders and members of the Japanese-Korean government. Because of its proximity to Manchuria, the town of Kando in northern Korea became a hotbed of such activity. Ito decided to set up a significant Japanese military and police presence in the area. However, 20 percent of the 100,000 residents of Kando were Chinese. When the Japanese began to crack down on the population of Kando, these Chinese were caught in the violence. The situation caused conflict between the Japanese and the Chinese.

In response to the increased Japanese activity in the Kando region, An Joong-Gun led his guerrilla army on a raid there in June 1909. The raid was a success, resulting in many Japanese deaths. Despite such guerrilla activities, the Japanese finally arrived at an agreement with the Chinese. The treaty, signed on September 4, 1909, allowed the Japanese to build a branch line to the Southern Manchurian Railway to exploit the rich mineral resources in Manchuria. In return, the Japanese turned over to the Chinese the territorial rights to Kando. This act of selling Korean territory to another country was the last straw for many loyal Koreans such as An Joong-Gun. He set out to his base of operations in Vladivostok, Siberia, to prepare for his assassination of Hirobumi Ito.

Russia was becoming very nervous at the level of Japanese activity in the northern Korean area and Japan’s obvious designs on Manchuria. Ito, who had officially become the president of the Japanese Senate, arranged to meet with Russian representatives at Harbin, Manchuria, to calm their fears over the Japanese intentions to annex Manchuria and invade China. The final plans for the meeting between Ito and General Kokotseff, a minister-level Russian government official were set for October 26, 1909.

When Ito arrived at the Harbin train station at 9:00 a.m. on October 26, 1909, An Joong-Gun was waiting for him. Knowing full well that he would never escape alive, and that torture awaited him if captured by the Japanese, An Joong-Gun shot Ito after he stepped off the train. Following the assassination, Joong-Gun was captured by Japanese troops and imprisoned at Port Arthur. While in Japanese prisons, he suffered through five months of extremely barbarous torture. Despite this unbelievable treatment, it is said that his spirit never broke. On March 26, l9l0, at 10:00 a.m., Joong-Gun was executed at Lui-Shung prison.

The assassination of Hirobumi Ito, like so many other actions by Korean patriots, seemed to only serve to fuel the fires of Japanese oppression. In 1910, the office of resident general, with Ito’s successor now in charge, was changed to governor general to allow a more dictatorial approach to the total control of Korea. Akashi Genjiro was named as the commander of the Japanese military and police superintendent in Korea. He launched an extremely harsh campaign to harass the Korean population. He closed all newspapers, disbanded all patriotic organizations, arrested thousands of Korean leaders, and enforced a strict military rule of the capital city of Seoul by crack Japanese combat troops. This type of rule under the Japanese continued in Korea until Japan surrendered at the end of World War II.

The sacrifice of An Joong-Gun was one of many in this chaotic time in Korean history. His attitude and that of his compatriots symbolized the loyalty and dedication of the Korean people to their country’s independence and freedom. Joong-Gun’s love for his country was forever captured in the calligraphy he wrote in his cell in Lui-Shung Prison prior to his execution. It simply said, “The Best Rivers and Mountains.” This implied that he felt his country was the most beautiful on earth. Although his roles spanned from educator to guerrilla leader, he was, above all, a great Korean patriot.

32 movements represent the age at which An Joong-Gun was martyred in 1910.

Toi-Gye

Toi Gye is the pen name of the noted scholar Yi Hwang (1501-1570 A.D.), an authority on Neo-Confucianism.Yi Hwang, or Toi Gye as he is often called, lived at a time of great social upheaval and ethical conflict between the public good and private self-interest.He passed the preliminary provincial civil service examination with top honours at the age of 33 and continued his scholarly pursuits, even as he held several government positions, until his death at age 70.

Yi was the ideal gentleman-scholar for he pursued self-cultivation and service to his country throughout his life. On numerous occasions he was exiled from the capital for his firm commitment to principle.

Yi Hwang was greatly respected by King Chungjong, Myongjong and Sonjo, and his thought even influenced the development of Neo-Confucianism in Japan.

Yi died in 1570. He was posthumously promoted to the highest ministerial rank. His mortuary tablet is enshrined in a Confucian shrine as well as in the shrine of King Sonjo.

Yi was the author of many books on Confucianism. He also published a “shijo” collection, a short poetic form popular with the literati of the Choson period.

It was in his later years that he began to build Tosan Sowon, a private Confucian academy offering instruction in the classics and honouring the sages with regular memorial rites.

The academy remains a center for the study Toi Gye thought, and regular memorial services are held in honour of its founder twice a year.

 

Hwa Rang

Named after the Hwa-rang youth group that originated in the Silla Dynasty over 1350 years ago and became the driving force for unification of the three kingdoms of Korea.During the 6th century AD, the Korean peninsula was divided into three kingdoms: Silla, Koguryo, and Paekche. Silla, the smallest of these kingdoms, was constantly under invasion and harassment by its two more powerful neighbours. The Hwarang were established by Chin Hung, the 24th King of Silla (540 AD), who was a devoted Buddhist and loved elegance and physical beauty. He believed in mythical beings and male (Sin-Sun) and female fairies (Sun-Nyo). These beliefs led him to hold beauty contests to find the prettiest maidens in the country, which he called Won-Hwa (Original Flowers). He taught them modesty, loyalty, filial piety, and sincerity, so they would become good wives. In one contest among 300-400 Won-Hwa, two exceptionally beautiful young women were favoured, Nam-Mo and Joon-Jung. Unfortunately, the two began to struggle for power and influence between themselves. Finally, to win the contest, Joon Jung got Nam-Mo drunk and killed her by crushing her skull with a rock. When the unfortunate maiden’s body was found in a shallow grave by the river, the king had Joon-Jung put to death and disbanded the order of the Won-Hwa.

Several years after this incident the King created a new order, the Hwarang. “Hwa” meant flower or blossom, and “Rang” meant youth or gentle men. The word Hwa-rang soon came to stand for Flower of Knighthood. These Hwarang were selected from handsome, virtuous young men of good families.

Each Hwarang group consisted hundreds of thousands of members chosen from the young sons of the nobility by popular election. The leaders of each group, including the most senior leader, were referred to as Kuk-Son. The Kuk-Son were similar to King Arthur’s Knights of the Round Table in England around 1200 AD.

Trainees learned the five cardinal principles of human relations (kindness, justice, courtesy, intelligence, and faith), the three scholarships (royal tutor, instructor, and teacher), and the six ways of service (holy minister, good minister, loyal minister, wise minister, virtuous minister, and honest minister). After training, candidates were presented to the king for nomination as a Hwarang or Kuk-Son.

From Kuk-Son ranks were chosen government officials, military leaders, field generals, and even kings, who served Silla both in times of peace and war. Most of the great military leaders of Silla were products of Hwarang training, and many were Kuk-Son.

The education of a Hwarang was supported by the king and generally lasted ten years, after which the youth usually entered into some form of service to his country. King Chin Hung sent the Hwarang to places of scenic beauty for physical and mental culture as true knights of the nation. For hundreds of years the Hwarang were taught by Kuk-Son in social etiquette, music and songs, and patriotic behavior.

A Hwarang candidate had to be a man of character, virtue, and countenance. The Hwarang trained to improve their moral principles and military skills. To harden their bodies, they climbed rugged mountains and swam turbulent rivers in the coldest months.

The youth were taught dance, literature, arts, and sciences, and the arts of warfare, chariot, archery, and hand-to-hand combat. The hand-to-hand combat was based on the Um-Yang principles of Buddhist philosophy and included a blending of hard and soft, linear and circular techniques. The art of foot fighting was known as Subak and was practiced by common people throughout the three kingdoms. However, the Hwarang transformed and intensified this art and added hand techniques, renaming it Taekkyon. The Hwarang punches could penetrate the wooden chest armor of an enemy and kill him. Their foot techniques were said to be executed at such speed that opponents frequently thought that the feet of Hwarang warriors were swords.

In later centuries, the king of Koryo made Taekkyon training mandatory for all soldiers, and annual Taekkyon contests were held among all members of the Silla population on May 5th of the Lunar Calendar.

The rank of Hwarang usually meant a man had achieved the position of a teacher of the martial arts and commanded 500-5,000 students called Hwarang-Do. A Kuk-Son was the master and held the rank of general in the army. Hwarang fighting spirit was ferocious and was recorded in many literary works including the Sam-Guk-Sagi, written by Kim Pu-Sik in 1145, and the Hwarang-Segi. The latter was said to have contained the records of lives and deeds of over 200 individual Hwarang (Sadly, it was lost during the Japanese occupation in the 20th century). The zeal of the Hwarang helped Silla become the world’s first “Buddha Land” and led to the unification of the three kingdoms of Korea. Buddhist principles were so ingrained in the code of the Hwarang that a large number of monks participated in the Hwarang-Do. During times of war, they would take up arms to die for Silla.

Hwarang code

The Hwarang code was established in the 30th year of King Chin-Hung’s rule. Two noted Hwa-rang warriors, Kwi-San and Chu-Hang, sought out the famous warrior and Buddhist monk, Wong-Gwang Popsa, in Kusil temple on Mount Unmun and asked that he give them lifetime commandments that men who could not embrace the secluded life of a Buddhist monk could follow. The commandments, based on Confucian and Buddhist principles, were divided into five rules (loyalty to the king and country, obedience to one’s parents, sincerity, trust and brotherhood among friends, never retreat in battle, and selectivity and justice in the killing of living things), and nine virtues (humanity, justice, courtesy,

wisdom, trust, goodness, virtue, loyalty, and courage).

These principles were not taken lightly, as in the case of Kwi-San and Chu-Hang, who rescued their own commander, General Muun, when he was ambushed and fell from his horse during a battle in 603 AD. Attacking the enemy, these two Hwarang were heard to cry out to their followers, “Now is the time to follow the commandment to not retreat in battle!” After giving one of their horses to the general, they killed a great number of the pursuing enemy and finally, “bleeding from a thousand wounds,” they both died.

The code of the Hwarang is similar to the more commonly known code of the Japanese samurai, Bushido. The code of the Hwarang-Do played a similar role in the Korean kingdom of Silla approximately 1,000 years earlier. Being established during the 6th to 10th centuries, Hwarang-Do was considered more ancient and refined than Bushido. The Silla Dynasty lasted 1,000 years, and the Code of the Hwarang, known as Sesok-Ogye, endured throughout the Silla and Koryo dynasties. Its influence led to a unified national spirit and ultimately the unification of the three kingdoms of Korea around 668 AD.

The practice of Bushido appears to have perpetuated a feudal system in Japan for over 700 years with continual provincial wars, whereas Silla and Koryo thrived under the influence of the Hwarang. These Korean dynasties, based on Hwarang ethics, remained internally peaceful and prosperous for over 1,500 years while defending themselves against a multitude of foreign invasions. This can be compared to the Roman Empire, which thrived for only 1,000 years. Oyama Masutatsu, a well-known authority on Karate in Japan, has even suggested that the Hwarang were the forerunners of the Japanese samurai.

First recorded Hwarang hero

Sul Won-Nang was elected as the first Kuk-Son or head of the Hwarang order. However, the first recorded Hwarang hero was Sa Da-Ham. At the young age of 15, he raised his own 1,000-man army in support of Silla in its war against the neighbouring kingdom of Kara. He requested and was granted the honour of leading this force in support of the Silla army attacking the main fort of the Kara in 562 AD. As the first to breach the walls of the enemy fort, he was highly praised and rewarded by King Chin Hung for his bravery. He was offered 300 slaves and a large tract of land as a reward, but released the slaves and refused the land, stating that he did not wish to receive personal rewards for his deeds. He did agree to accept a small amount of fertile soil as a matter of courtesy to the King. However, when his best friend was killed in battle, Sa Da-Ham was inconsolable. As a youth, Sa Da-Ham and his friend had made pact-of-death should either of them ever die in battle. True to his promise, Sa Da-Ham starved himself to death, demonstrating his loyalty and adherence to the code of the Hwarang.

Another dedicated Hwarang, Kwan Chang, became a Hwarang commander at the age of 16 and was the son of Kim Yu-Sin’s Assistant General Kim Pumil. In 655 AD, he fought in the battle of Hwangsan against Paekche under General Kim Yu-Sin. During this battle he dashed headlong into the enemy camp and killed many Paekche soldiers, but was finally captured. His high ranking battle crest indicated that he was the son of a general so he was taken before the Paekche general, Gae-Baek. Surprised by Kwan Chang’s youthfulness when his helmet was removed, and thinking of his own young son, Gae-Baek decided that instead of executing him as was the custom with captured officers, he would return the young Hwa-rang to the Silla lines. Gae-Baek remarked, “Alas, how can we match the army of Silla! Even a young boy like this has such courage, not to speak of Silla’s men.” Kwan Chang went before his father and asked permission to be sent back into battle at the head of his men. After a day-long battle, Kwan Chang was again captured. After he had been disarmed, he broke free of his two guards, killing them with his hands and feet, and then attacked the Paekche general’s second in command. With a flying reverse turning kick to the head of the commander, who sat eight feet high atop his horse, Kwan Chang killed him. After finally being subdued once more, he was again taken before the Packche general. This time Gae-Baek said “I gave you your life once because of your youth, but now you return to take the life of my best field commander.” He then had Kwan Chang executed and his body returned to the Silla lines. General Kim Pumil was proud that his son had died so bravely in the service of his king. He said to his men, “It seems as if my son’s honour is alive. I am fortunate that he died for the King.” He then rallied his army and went on to defeat the Paekche forces.

The spirit of the Hwarang was present in all of the kingdoms of Korea during this time, and although not as evident as in Silla, it was demonstrated by such great Korean historical figures as Yon-Gye, Ul-Ji Moon-Duk, and Moon- Moo This spirit was kept alive throughout history by many individuals.

Hwarang and the martial arts fell out of favour during the Yi Dynasty (1392-1910) and adherence to the Hwarang code declined. Several Koreans did keep the code, however, notably Admiral Yi Sun-Sin who was instrumental in defeating the Japanese invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597. The spirit of the Hwarang and their code was present in Buddhist temples by monks. For example, in the 16th century two monks who followed the Hwarang code, rallied a Buddhist army that was instrumental in driving the Japanese invasion forces from Korea.

Stories of the Hwarang and their individual feats illustrate the code of the Hwarang, the type of ethics and morality essential to the evolution of the martial arts and the success Silla as a nation. This code has profoundly affected the Korean people and their culture throughout history. The lives and deeds of the Hwarang illustrate a level of courage, honour, wisdom, culture, compassion, and impeccable conduct that few men in history have demonstrated. The dedication and self-sacrifice of the Hwarang was clearly based on principles much stronger than ego and self interest. This basis was the Sesok-Ogye, the code of the Hwarang asset forth by the great Buddhist monk and scholar, Won Kang:

Be loyal to your king.
Be obedient to your parents.
Be honorable to your friends.
Never retreat in battle.
Make a just kill.

Choong-Moo

Chung Mu is the given name of great admiral Yi Sun-Sin who was in charge of naval operations during the Yi Dynasty. Born in 1545, Yi Sun-Sin was considered a master naval tactician and was largely responsible for the defeat of the Japanese in 1592 and 1598. He has been compared to Sir Francis Drake and Lord Nelson of England. His name is held in such high esteem that when the Japanese fleet defeated the Russian navy in 1905, the Japanese admiral was quoted as saying, “You may wish to compare me with Lord Nelson but do not compare me with Korea’s Admiral Yi Sun-Sin…. He is too remarkable for anyone”.”Yi Sun-Sin’s most famous invention was the Kobukson, or turtle-boat, a galley ship decked over with iron plates to protect the soldiers and rowing seamen. It was so named because the curvature of the iron plates covering the top decks resembled a turtle’s shell. The ship was 110 feet long and 28 feet wide with a lower deck for cabins and supplies, a middle deck for oarsmen, and an upper deck for marines and cannons. Most of the timber was four inches thick, giving the ship protection from arrows and musket balls. It had a large iron ram in the shape of a turtle’s head with an open mouth from which smoke, arrows, and missiles were discharged. Another such opening in the rear and six more on either side were for the same purpose. The armored shell was fitted with iron spikes and knives that were covered over with straw or grass to impale unwanted boarders.

The Kobukson was not only impervious to almost any Japanese weapon, it was heavy and built for speed and could overtake anything afloat. The ship carried approximately forty 3-inch cannons that fired shot or steel headed darts, and had hundreds of small holes for firing arrows or throwing bombs. In comparison, the Japanese ships usually carried one cannon, many muskets, and no protective armour. The Kobukson was very effective in chasing down and sinking large numbers of Japanese troop and supply ships as well as successfully attacking numerous heavy Japanese battleships head on. It was the most highly developed warship of its time.

The Kobukson was constructed in a critical period in Korean history, one of the many times Korean and Japanese destinies converged.

First invasion in 1592.

When Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the shogun of Japan, rose to power in 1590, he decided to control the internal feuding in Japan. Because Japan’s largest threat was the other powerful war lords of Japan, he planned to tie up the financial resources of the lords with an invasion of China and thereby dilute their power. He requested that Korea aid him in his conquest. When it refused, he ordered two of his generals, Kato Kiyomasa (the Buddhist commander) and Konishi Yukinaga (the Christian commander), to attack Korea in April 1592.

The Japanese invasion force was comprised of 160,000 regular army troops, 80,000 bodyguard troops, 1,500 heavy cavalry, 60,000 reserve troops, 50,000 horses, 300,000 firearms 500,000 daggers, 100,000 short swords, 100,000 spears, 100,000 long swords, 5,000 axes, and 3-4,000 boats (40-50 feet by 10 feet). The army was also supported by another 700 ships, transport vessels, naval ships, and small craft manned by 9,000 seamen. Having been acquainted with the use of firearms since 1543, the Japanese had imported a large number of muskets from Europe, and had developed the ability to manufacture them four years before the first invasion.

The Koreans, on the other hand, had few firearms and did not know how to use or manufacture them. Outnumbered and armed only with swords, bows and arrows, and spears, the Korean military was severely disadvantaged in the face of the Japanese invading army armed with 300,000 muskets. Although a few courageous Korean units resisted, such as those under the command of General Kim Si-Min, the army of Japan reached Seoul in just 15 days and occupied the entire country by May 1592.

The Korean king, Son Jo, fled with his court to Uiju in the Northern Provinces with permission from the Ming emperor of China with whom the Koreans had several treaties. When the Ming armies joined in the fight, the tide of the war shifted away from the Japanese. They had to fight Korean guerrilla groups as well as the Ming army, while at the same time finding themselves cut off from their supplies by Admiral named Yi Sun-Sin. Disease, malnutrition, and the cold soon took its toll on Japanese morale. Having lost the will to fight, retreating Japanese forces were stalked by guerrilla forces led by Confucian scholars and Buddhist monks. Peace negotiations eventually took place between the Ming general and the Japanese, but these talks dragged on for five years and reached no conclusion.

In early 1592, at the outset of this conflict, Admiral Yi Sun-Sin, in charge of the Right Division of Chulla Province, made his headquarters in the port city of Yosu. In Yosu, he constructed his famed turtle ships. The first Kobukson was launched and outfitted with cannons only two days before the first Japanese troops landed at Pusan. In the fifth month of 1592, assisted by Admiral Won Kyun of the Left Division of Chulla Province, Admiral Yi engaged the Japanese at Okpa. In his first battle, Admiral Yi commanded 80 ships compared to the Japanese naval force of 800 ships. The Japanese were trying to re-supply their northern bases from their port at Pusan. By the end of the day, Yi had set afire 26 Japanese ships and the rest had turned to flee. Giving chase, he sank many more, leaving the entire Japanese fleet scattered.

Several major engagements followed in which Admiral Yi annihilated every Japanese squadron he encountered. Courageous and a tactical genius, he seemed to be able to outguess the enemy. In one incident, Admiral Yi dreamt that a robed man called out “The Japanese are coming.” Seeing this as a sign, he rose to assemble his ships, sailed out, and surprised a large enemy fleet. He burned twelve enemy ships and scattered the rest. In the course of the battle, he demonstrated his bravery by not showing pain when shot in the shoulder. He revealed his injury only when the battle was over, at which time he bared his shoulder and ordered that the bullet be cut out.

In August of 1592, 100,000 Japanese troop reinforcements headed around Pyongyang peninsula and up the west coast. Admiral Yi and his Lieutenant Yi Ok-Keui confronted them at Kyon-Na-Rang among the islands off the southern coast of Korea. Pretending at first to flee, Admiral Yi then turned and began to ram the Japanese ships. His fleet followed his lead and sank 71 Japanese boats. When a Japanese reinforcement fleet arrived, Admiral Yi’s fleet sank 48 more Japanese ships and forced many more to be beached as the Japanese sailors tried to escape on land. This engagement is considered to be one of history’s greatest naval battles.

Unaware of this battle, the Japanese commander had sent a message to the Korean King Son-Jo that read: “100,000 men are coming to reinforce me. Where will you flee then?” Upon hearing that Admiral Yi had shattered the Japanese fleet, the king was elated and heaped all possible honours upon him. For the Japanese, any hope of an invasion of China was now totally crushed.

Admiral Yi Sun-Sin pushed on to Tang-Hang Harbour where he encountered another large Japanese fleet that included the huge Japanese flagship of the Japanese admiral. Admiral Yi ordered his best archer to shoot the Japanese admiral, who sat on the deck dressed in silk and gold. The arrow pierced the Japanese admiral’s throat, throwing the entire Japanese fleet into a panicked retreat which ended in carnage as Yi pursued in his usual fashion.

In a brilliant military move, Admiral Yi took the entire Korean Navy, 180 small and large ships into the Japanese home port at Pusan harbour and attacked the main Japanese naval force of more than 500 ships, that was still at anchor. Using fire boats and strategic manoeuvring, he sank over half of the Japanese vessels. However, receiving no land support, Admiral Yi was forced to withdraw. With this battle, Admiral Yi completed what some naval historians have called the most important series of engagements in the history of the world.

During one patrol sweep, Admiral Yi’s fleet spotted 26 Japanese ships on the horizon. He spread out his forces in a formation known as the fishnet and advanced. The fishnet or inverted V grouped the heaviest ships of the fleet at its vortex. As the enemy ships were forced inside the V, they were trapped and destroyed by Yi’s heavy ships.

Korean control of the sea, under the command of Admiral Yi Sun-Sin, soon forced the Japanese invasion to a complete standstill. Although the Japanese ground commanders begged for supplies, neither supplies nor reinforcements could get past Admiral Yi Sun-Sin to reach the Japanese forces along the western coast of the peninsula. Because of this situation, the following months saw little military action.

During his forced idleness Admiral Yi Sun-Sin prepared for the future; he had his men make salt by evaporating seawater, and used it to pay local workers for building ships and barracks and to trade for materials his navy needed. His energy and patriotism were so contagious that many worked for nothing. Having heard not only of Yi’s military feats, but his contributions to the navy as well, the king conferred upon him the admiralty of the surrounding three provinces.

For a successful invasion of Korea, the Japanese knew that they would have to eliminate Yi Sun-Sin. No Japanese fleet would be safe as long as his turtle boats were prowling the sea. Seeing how the internal court rivalries of the Koreans worked, the Japanese devised a plan. A Japanese soldier named Yosira was sent to the camp of the Korean general, Kim Eung-Su, and convinced the general that he would spy on the Japanese for the Koreans.

Yosira spent a long time acting as a spy and giving the Koreans what appeared to be valuable information. One day he told General Kim that the Japanese General Kato would be coming on a certain date with the great Japanese fleet, and insisted that Admiral Yi be sent to lie in wait and sink it. General Kim agreed and requested King Son-Jo for permission to send Admiral Yi. The general was given permission, but when he gave Admiral Yi his orders, the admiral declined. Yi knew that the location given by the spy was studded with sunken rocks and was very dangerous. When General Kim informed the king of Admiral Yi Sun Sin’s refusal to go, Admiral Yi’s enemies at court insisted on his replacement by Won Kyun and his arrest. As a result, in 1597 Admiral Yi Sun-Sin was relieved of command, placed under arrest, taken to Seoul in chains, beaten, and tortured. The king wanted to have Admiral Yi killed but the admiral’s supporters at court convinced the king to spare him due to his past service record. Spared the death penalty, Admiral Yi was demoted to the rank of common foot soldier. Yi Sun-Sin responded to this humiliation as a most obedient subject, going quietly about his work as if his rank and orders were totally appropriate.

With Admiral Yi stripped of any influence, when negotiations broke down in 1596, Hideyoshi again ordered his army to attack Korea. The invasion came in the first month of 1597 with a Japanese force of 140,000 men transported to Korea in thousands of ships. Had Admiral Yi been in command of the Korean Navy at that time, the Japanese would most likely never have landed on any shore again. Instead, the Japanese fleet landed safely at Sosang Harbour.

The spy Yosira continued to urge General Kim to send the Korean Navy to intercept a fleet of Japanese ships. When ordered to do so, Won Kyun gathered his 80 ships together and reluctantly set sail. This fleet was hardly recognizable as Yi Sun-Sin’s former one. Won Kyun had eliminated all of the rules and regulations set up by Yi when he took command as well as purging the ranks of all who had been close to Admiral Yi. His inept manoeuvres almost destroyed the entire Korean fleet and alienated all his men. Consequently, this battle ended in a complete defeat for the Korean Navy, while Yi Sun-Sin was being detained as a foot soldier. The Korean fleet scattered in a night storm and the main portion blundered upon the Japanese fleet the next day. On seeing the Japanese fleet, Won Kyun panicked and retreated. He beached his boats and took to the land but the Japanese overtook and beheaded him. The Korean fleet scattered was mostly destroyed.

With the news of Won Kyun’s disastrous defeat, a loyal advisor of the king called for Yi Sun-Sin’s reinstatement. Fearing for his country’s security, the king hastily reinstated Yi Sun-Sin as the naval commander. In spite of his previous unfair treatment, Yi immediately set out on foot for his former base at Hansan. As he travelled, he met scattered remnants of his former force. By the time he arrived at Hansan, he had only twelve boats but no lack of men, for the people along the coast had flocked to him when they heard of his reinstatement. Yi drew up his fleet of 12 boats in the shadow of a mountain on Chin-Do island off the Myongyang straits. One night his scouts reported the approach of a Japanese fleet. As the moon dropped behind the mountain, the Korean fleet of 12 ships was shrouded in total darkness. When the Japanese fleet of 133 ships sailed by in single file, Admiral Yi’s forces gave a large shout and fired point blank. Yi employed one of his tactics, the use of two salvo fire, that resulted in a continuous barrage, causing the Japanese to think that they had run into a vastly superior force. Their fleet scattered in all directions in a total panic. The next day several hundred more Japanese ships appeared and Admiral Yi, fearless as ever, made straight for them. He was soon surrounded, but sank 30 Japanese boats. The remainder of the Japanese fleet, recognizing the work of the famous Admiral Yi Sun-Sin, turned and fled. Admiral Yi gave chase, decimated the enemy, and killed the Japanese commander Madasi.

After this battle, Admiral Yi returned to Hansan and once again began rebuilding the navy and making salt. His former captains and soldiers came back to him in “clouds.” With his salt-making operations and the money collected as a toll from fleeing merchant ships, Admiral Yi purchased needed plies and materials such as copper used in making cannons and ships. He again managed to establish a large, well-equipped garrison.

Despite Admiral Yi’s personal success, Korea was alone and in trouble. What help was available was most often supplied by Chinese troops and naval units. Although this military support was welcome, it carried with it a new set of problems, such as Korean fighting units having to put up with Chinese commander being in charge of them. These commanders were usually not inspired by the same patriotism that guided good Korean commanders.

In 1598, the Chinese emperor sent Admiral Chil Lin to command Korea’s western coast. Admiral Chil Lin was an extremely vain man and would take advice from no one. Knowing this to be a serious problem, Admiral Yi made every effort to win the trust of the Chinese admiral. His political skills proved to be as good as his military ones. He allowed Admiral Chil Lin to take credit for many of his own victories. He was willing to forgo the praise and let others reap the commendation in order to have the enemies of his country destroyed.

Yi Sun-Sin was soon in charge of all strategy while Admiral Chil Lin took the credit. This arrangement made the Chinese seem successful, which so encouraged them that they gave Korea the aid it desperately needed. Admiral Chil Lin could not praise Admiral Yi enough, and repeatedly wrote to the Korean King So-Jon that the universe did not contain another man who could perform the feats that Yi Sun-Sin apparently found easy.

It is fitting that Admiral Yi died in battle in 1598. It was during the time when the Japanese were trying to evacuate many of their forces. Admiral Yi and the Chinese Admiral Chil Lin swooped down on their forces and nearly wiped out the entire fleet. On November 8, 1598, at the age of 54, Yi Sun-Sin, while standing in the bow of his flagship directing the battle, was struck with a stray bullet. Before he died, he is quoted as saying, “Do not let the rest know I am dead, for it will spoil the fight.”

During the second invasion of Korea in 1597, the Japanese were only able to occupy Kyongsang and part of Chulla Provinces. Their efforts were thwarted by the harassment of the Korean volunteer army and the strategies of Admiral Yi Sun-Sin that prevented them from landing or being supplied beyond the southern provinces. Partly due to this lack of progress, the war ended after Hideyoshi’s death late in 1598 when the Japanese troops were recalled to Japan.

The six years of war, from 1592 to 1598, laid waste to the whole Korean peninsula. Hardly a building still stands in Korea that predates the Hideyoshi invasions except for a few stone structures. Rare and valuable collections of books were destroyed, including the official records of the reigns of the Yi dynasty. A series of famines, epidemics, peasant revolts, and a full-scale renewal of political squabbling in the Korean government followed on the heels of the war. As a result, culture and government were left in chaos and the social system of the country was disrupted.

For all its disastrous aftermath, the war did provide Korea with one of its most celebrated national heroes, Admiral Yi Sun-Sin. Known primarily as an inventor of the world’s first iron-plated vessel and a master naval tactician, Yi also had other accomplishments. Some of his little-known inventions included the use of a smoke generator in which sulphur and saltpetre were burned, emitting great clouds of smoke. This first recorded use of a smoke screen struck terror in the hearts of superstitious enemy sailors, and more practically, it masked the movements of Admiral Yi’s ships.

Another of his inventions was a type of flamethrower, that was a small cannon with an arrow-shaped shell that housed an incendiary charge. This flamethrower successfully set afire hundreds of enemy ships. Along with his inventions, specific tactical manoeuvres demonstrate Yi’s brilliance as a naval tactician, such as his use of the fishnet formation and using two salvo fire against ships.

Admiral Yi Sun-Sin was one of the greatest heroes in Korean history. He was posthumously awarded the honorary title of Choong-Moo, “Loyalty-Chivalry,” in 1643. The Distinguished Military Service Medal of the Republic of Korea (the third highest) is named after this title. Numerous books praise his feats of glory and several statues and monuments commemorate his deeds. In April 1968, a 55-foot high statue of Yi (reportedly the tallest in the Orient) was dedicated in Seoul, Korea. His life-size statue on the peak of Mt. Nam-mang, indicates he was a very large man, as judged by the size of the sword on the statue.

The shrine of Chungnyol-Sa, meaning “faithful to king and country,” established in 1606, is now both a museum and shrine dedicated to the admiral. The eight relics on display in this shrine were gifts to Admiral Yi Sun-Sin from the Chinese emperor and include a 7-foot commander’s bugle, a 5-foot sword, a ceremonial sword (weighing 66 pounds), Admiral Yi’s seal, and several flags. Another Korean treasure is the war diary of Admiral Yi Sun-Sin, which, in addition to some of his personal articles, is preserved at the shrine of Hyonchung-Sa. In addition, a small museum in the city of Choong-Moo, a traditional seaport named after him, displays a replica of the turtle ship as well as other articles of that period.